responsibility among the mariner, shipping companies, unions, port authorities and facility operators, and others. Each of these groups, as well as the general public, benefits from improved mariner competency and safety.

It is important, therefore, that any decisions to mandate training for licensing or renewal include full consideration of options and mechanisms available to ensure that the training is affordable and available to all effected mariners.

Recommendation 23: The U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Maritime Administration should assess the options for funding simulator-based training and licensing. The assessment should include the following options:

  • allocation of some customs fees collected on marine cargos for maritime professional development,
  • federal surcharges on port fees and pilotage fees,
  • federal port fees,
  • employer contributions,
  • collective bargaining agreements,
  • nonprofit foundations and other organizations, and
  • individual cost sharing.

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