forward in assessing computer-based training and testing systems and in using these methods to verify professional competency.

The USCG has not publicly stated its official position on the report's findings, having recently referred it to MERPAC for validation. Nevertheless, the USCG has proceeded on its own initiative to advance the application of marine simulation in professional development and marine licensing. Many courses had previously been approved for sea-time credit (USCG, 1994). In November 1994, the agency published its course-approval policy guidance, which strongly encourages simulation training and provides general criteria for the granting of sea-time equivalency. (Subpart C of 46 CFR 10 contains the general criteria used by the USCG to approve courses of instruction.) Also in November 1994, the agency established a precedent by accepting a combined simulation-based training and evaluation course as a nonmandatory substitute for the entire master (unlimited oceans) license examination (see Appendix F).


Anderson, D.B., T.L. Rice, R.G. Ross, J.D. Pendergraft, C.D. Kakuska, D.F. Meyers, S.J. Szczepaniak, and P.A. Stutman. 1993. Licensing 2000 and Beyond. Washington, D.C.: Office of Marine Safety, Security and Environmental Protection, U.S. Coast Guard.

NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Minding the Helm: Marine Navigation and Piloting. Committee on Advances in Navigation and Piloting, Marine Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

USCG (U.S. Coast Guard). 1994. U.S. Coast Guard approved course listing as of October 1, 1994. Unpublished. Merchant Personnel Division, Office of Marine Safety, Security, and Environmental Protection, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, D.C.

Wohlfarth, W.G. 1978. Licensing examination modernization. Pp. 4–9 in Proceedings of the Marine Safety Council, January. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Coast Guard.

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