This appendix includes the outlines of two simulator-based training courses. These courses are conducted by members of the NRC Committee on Ship-Bridge Simulation Training.
Deck Officer: training in nautical science as preparation for the third mate's license examination. (Required of cadets majoring in marine transportation and ship's officers).
Engineering Officer: training in marine engineering as preparation for the third assistant engineer's license examination. (Required of all engineering majors). Dual license majors take both license-preparation instruction and license examinations.
Experience with the bridge watchstanding simulator is a necessary part of the license curriculum; therefore, it must able to meet the U.S. Coast Guard standards for training.
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--> APPENDIX E Outlines of Sample Simulator-Based Training Courses This appendix includes the outlines of two simulator-based training courses. These courses are conducted by members of the NRC Committee on Ship-Bridge Simulation Training. BRIDGE WATCHSTANDING SIMULATION TRAINING COURSE FOR CADETS, U.S. MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY, KINGS POINT, NEW YORK U.S. Coast Guard License Programs Deck Officer: training in nautical science as preparation for the third mate's license examination. (Required of cadets majoring in marine transportation and ship's officers). Engineering Officer: training in marine engineering as preparation for the third assistant engineer's license examination. (Required of all engineering majors). Dual license majors take both license-preparation instruction and license examinations. Experience with the bridge watchstanding simulator is a necessary part of the license curriculum; therefore, it must able to meet the U.S. Coast Guard standards for training.
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--> Bridge Watchstanding Simulation Training Course Aims To enhance the potential third mate's decision-making skills as they apply to traffic and voyage-planning situations. To sharpen the cadet's bridge watchstanding skills to the highest level prior to graduation. Objectives Understand the maneuvering capability of own ship (a 40,000 deadweight ton tanker) and amounts of rudder required for various maneuvers, including: rudder orders, rudder response time, heading change rate and its time dependency, engine speeds and vessel maneuvering, engine orders, engine response time and limitations (diesel versus steam), speed change and its time requirements, and effect of environment (wind, current, etc.) on shiphandling. Understand the importance of monitoring and assessing traffic situations and identify collision risks as it applies to: a real-world application of the COLREGSs in clear and restricted visibility, proper use of VHF communications, the need to maintain an efficient lookout and to take visual bearings to determine drift, clear and concise reports to the master using relative bearings and drift, timely and substantial alterations of course, special circumstances and ambiguous rules-of-the-road situations, how to maneuver the vessel in extremes. Keep a safe navigation watch in coastal waters and while approaching a pilot station as it pertains to: importance of reading and complying with standing and night orders, monitoring all bridge equipment and responding to malfunctions, proper transfer of the watch and proper log-book entries, communications (inter and intra). preparation of vessel for port arrivals and departures, preparation of passage plan and monitoring progress of vessel in accordance with the plan, identifying situations when the master must be called,
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--> teamwork and role of the officer of the watch with master or pilot, utilizing all means available for fixes and parallel indexing (i.e., dead reckoning ahead, turn bearings, plotting and advance and transfer, combination of visual and radar fixes, proper utilization of ranges, and parallel indexing. The Voyage: New York to Port International Scenarios Week Time on Simulator for Each Watch Team 1 30 minutes Bridge and vessel familiarization. 45 minutes Vessel at Stapleton—prepare for sea master on bridge; weigh anchor; full away; master departs bridge(day). 2 1 hour Prepare for arrival and arrive New York (night); Sandy Hook pilot boards; master in cabin; pilot/watch officer relationship and transfer of watch in pilotage waters. 3 and 4 2 hours At-sea rules-of-the-road scenarios; various steering failures and reduced visibility (day and night). 5 1 hour Prepare for arrival and arrive Cristobal anchorage (sunrise); begin grading watch teams. 6 1 hour Prepare for departure Cristobal (day); depart from Cristobal. 7 1 hour Transit Singapore Straits and transfer of watch (night). 8 1 hour California coast watch in vessel traffic lane and transfer of watch (day). 9 1 hour Arrival preparation and arrival Santa Cruz Channel for Port International (day). 10 1 hour Depart Port International under Santa Cruz VTS (vessel traffic safety) in mine-swept channel for sea (night). BRIDGE TEAM MANAGEMENT COURSE, SOUTHAMPTON INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION, MARITIME OPERATIONS CENTRE, SOUTHAMPTON, UNITED KINGDOM The following are the aims and objectives of the Centre's Full-Mission Ship's Bridge Simulator Course followed by the objectives of the scheme of
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--> work for the Bridge Team Management Course. This example illustrates development of an exercise scenario from a single, relevant simulator exercise. The exercise is from the later part of course,when the group of trainees involved will have developed their teamwork and bridge resource management skills as a result of preceding exercises and lectures and discussions. Full-Mission Ship-Bridge Simulator Course Aims To provide participants with the opportunity to experience and analyze various navigational scenarios and demonstrate procedures to assist in the safe conduct of the vessel. To exercise procedures that will take into account all relevant regulations, as well as quality management techniques that work toward high standards of excellence and professionalism. Objectives The course objectives concentrate on passage-planning techniques and bridge resource management techniques. Passage-Planning Techniques. Participants completing the course will be able to appraise and formulate a detailed passage plan including but not limited to: no-go and danger areas, margins of safety, track to be made good, use to transits (ranges) clearing bearings and distances, visual cues, parallel indexing, conspicuous radar targets, course alterations and wheelovers speed and timing of progress, aborts and contingencies, allowance for squats, and interpretation and use of maneuvering data. Participants completing this course will be able to execute such a plan and demonstrate a good understanding of proper bridge resource management. Bridge Resource Management. Participants completing the course will be able to demonstrate their understanding of: the need for good teamwork, the need for good internal information flow between all team members,
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--> the importance of developing the skills and confidence of junior members of the team, the need for good management of all available resources (i.e., personnel,equipment, and time), good external and internal communication procedures, the need to identify the development of an error chain and to break such a chain, the importance of traffic management, particularly in confined waters, the role of the engine-room staff in the team, and the risk factor in an anticipated operation and in the development of good risk management procedures. Exercise On completion of the exercise, participants will have: Appraised and planned a complex, confined-waters passage including departure from an anchorage, a difficult turn, and traffic management. Planned for contingencies, emergencies, and an emergency anchorage. Discussed and planned for the integration of the pilot into the bridge team—including correcting any deficiencies in this area highlighted by exercises 4 and 6, as applicable. Conducted an effective ship/pilot exchange of information—in particular, how the ship is to maneuver when leaving the anchorage. Monitored the vessel's position closely when leaving the anchorage and supported the pilot accordingly. Recognized and dealt with various developing traffic situations in accordance with the collision regulations. Maintained the vessel's progress in accordance with the passage plan. Maintained the vessel on the planned track in a narrow channel in strong cross-tides and winds. Responded effectively to an emergency. Brought the vessel to an emergency anchorage. The master will have briefed his team and will have: Conducted an effective master/pilot exchange. Demonstrated his or her ability to make command decisions. Shown situational awareness and anticipation in dealing with traffic situations and in conducting the navigation in a difficult, narrow channel. Responded decisively to an emergency situation. Delegated navigational tasks effectively. Gained experience in the command role of a bridge team.