BOX 2-1 Marine Operations Bridge Simulators Classifications Proposed to International Maritime Organization (IMO)

Within the marine industry, the terminology used to describe or classify simulators varies greatly. The terminology used in this report has been proposed for adoption by the IMO.

Category I: Full mission. Capable of simulating full visual navigation bridge operations, including capability for advanced maneuvering and pilotage training in restricted waterways.

Category II: Multi-task. Capable of simulating full visual navigation bridge operations, as in Category I, but excluding the capability for advanced restricted-water maneuvering.

Category III: Limited task. Capable of simulating, for example, an environment for limited (instrument or blind) navigation and collision avoidance.

Category IV: Special task. Capable of simulating particular bridge instruments, or limited navigation maneuvering scenarios, but with the operator located outside the environment (e.g., a desktop simulator using computer graphics to simulate a bird's-eye view of the operating area).

SOURCE: Drown and Lowry (1993).

Simulator and Simulation Validity

Simulators and simulations vary greatly among facilities. Any discussion of simulator and simulation standardization needs to include issues of validation and validity. Validation is the process of evaluating specified characteristics of a simulator or simulation against a set of predetermined criteria. Assessing simulator or simulation validity generally includes consideration of two components—fidelity and accuracy. Fidelity describes the degree of realism or similarity between the simulated situation and real operation. Accuracy describes the degree of correctness of the simulation, with a focus on ship trajectory and location of aids to navigation and other critical navigational cues. The issues of simulator and simulation performance, technical standards, and validation are discussed in more detail in Chapter 7 and in Appendix D.

Computer-Based and Physical Scale-Model Simulators

A wide range of simulator capabilities are in use for training worldwide. Marine simulator capabilities for channel design and mariner training developed along two parallel and complementary lines—computer-based simulators and



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