. "3 Effective Training with Simulation: The Instructional Design Process." Simulated Voyages: Using Simulation Technology to Train and License Mariners. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1996.
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Box 3-1Elements of Instructional Design Process
characterizing training populations and identifying specific training needs;
determining training objectives (i.e., goals);
determining course content and course material requirements needed to meet training objectives;
determining training methods;
identifying training resource requirements and correlating them with training objectives;
matching specific instructional techniques to curriculum content;
• identifying student assessment requirements and developing assessment
establishing instructor qualification, selection, training, and certification requirements to ensure quality of instruction and successful curriculum implementation.
measures for determining whether or to what degree trainees have achieved the training objectives. These important elements of instructional design have not been well addressed and have sometimes even been neglected in simulator-based courses.
The third stage is to determine the training methods to be used. This stage includes an assessment of whether simulation use is relevant to achieving the training objectives. Assuming simulation is to be used, two things must be determined:
the level of simulation (i.e., level of realism with respect to simulator components [see Chapter 4]) required to achieve training objectives (Hays and Singer, 1989) and
the type of simulator—full-mission, multi-task, limited task, or special task (see Box 2-1)—that will be of most value.
The development of the training approach should also consider factors such as:
the total training program of which the simulator-based training is part (e.g., cadet training toward a first license),
type of training media,
instructor's qualifications and experience, and
cost benefit and effectiveness of the training program.
Once it has been determined that a simulator-based course is relevant to training needs, it is necessary to develop a detailed course outline. Finally, there