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SEISMOLOGICAL RESEARCH REQUIREMENTS FOR A COMPREHENSIVE TEST-BAN MONITORING SYSTEM Pane! on Seismological Research Requirements for a Comprehensive Test-Ban Monitoring System Committee on Seismology Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1995

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject ofthis report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Support for this study was provided by the Advanced Research Projects Agency. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 95-70295 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05332-3 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) B-657 COVER: The cover shows a seismograph recording of a presumed French underground nuclear test in the Tuamotu Archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean. The event had a magnitude of 4.7, and it occurred at 21:30:00 GMT on September 5,1995. The location of the event is indicated in the Tower left corner. The recording is from the GERESS seismic array in Germany, noted by the point on the right of the cover. As discussed in this report, GERESS is a primary station in the GSETT-3 network that is being developed to verifier a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Cover figure courtesy of Charles Meade, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, National Research Council. Copyright (341995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. - 11

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PANEL ON SEISMOLOGICAL RESEARCH REQUIREMENTS FOR A COMPREHENSIVE TEST-BAN MONITORING SYSTEM THORNE LAY, Chair, University of California, Santa Cruz CLARENCE R. ALLEN, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena ROBERT BLANDFORD, Air Force Technical Applications Center, Arlington, Virginia ROBERT HAMILTON, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia WILLARD I. HANNON, JR., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California THOMAS H. JORDAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge CHARLES A. LANGSTON, Pennsylvania State Univesity, University Park PAUL, G. RICHARDS, I~amont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York BARBARA ROMANOWICZ, University of California, Berkeley TERRY C. WALLACE JR., University of Arizona, Tucson National Research Council Staff WILLIAM E. BENSON, Senior Program Officer CHARLES MEADE, Program Officer JUDITH L. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant

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COMMITTEE ON SEISMOLOGY THOMAS H. JORDAN. Chair, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge F. A. DAHLEN, Princeton University, New Jersey STEVEN M. DAY, San Diego State University, California THOMAS C. HANKS. U.S. Geological Survey, Menio Park, California CHARLES A. LANGSTON, Pennsylvania State University, University Park THORNE LAY, University of California, Santa Cruz STEWART A. LEVIN, Mobil Exploration & Production Technical Center, Dallas, Texas STEPHEN D. MALONE, University of Washington, Seattle JAMES R. RICE, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts PAUL G. SOMERVILLE, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Pasadena, California ANNE M. TREHU, Oregon State University, Corvallis National Research Council Staff WILLIAM E. BENSON, Senior Program Officer CHARLES MEADE, Program Officer JUDITH L. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant . 1V

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BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES J. FREEMAN GILBERT, Chair, University of Califomia, San Diego GAIL M. ASHLEY, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey THURE CERLING, University of Utah, Salt Lake City MARK P. CLODS, University of Texas at Austin WILLIAM R. DICKINSON, University of Arizona, Tucson JOEL DARMSTADTER, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. MARCO T. ElNAUDT, Stanford University, California NORMAN H. FOSTER, independent Petroleum Geologist, Denver, Colorado CHARLES G. GROAT, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge DONALD C. HANEY, University of Kentucky, Lexington SUSAN M. KIDWEI,L, University of Chicago, Illinois PHILIP E. LAMOREAUX, P.E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Inc., Tuscaloosa. Alabama SUSAN M. LANDON, Thomasson Partner Associates. Denver, Colorado I. BERNARD MINSTER, University of California, San Diego ALEXANDRA NAVROTSKY, Princeton University, New Jersey IlLL D. PASTERIS, Washington University, St. Louis. Missouri EDWARD C. ROY JR., Trinity University, San Anton~o, Texas National Research Council Staff CRAIG M. SCHIFFRIES, Staff Director THOMAS M. USSELMAN, Associate Staff Director INA B. ALTERMAN, Senior Program Officer WILLIAM E. BENSON, Senior Program Officer KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Senior Program Officer ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer CHARLES MEADE, Program Officer LALLY A. ANDERSON, Staff Associate VERNA I. BOWEN, Administrative Assistant JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant JUDITH L. ESTEP, Administrative Assistant v

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COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN, Chair, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania JAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada WILLIAM L. FISHER, The University of Texas. Austin GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. PERRY L. McCARTY, Stanford University, California JUDY McDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts S. GEORGE PHILANDER, Princeton University, New Jersey RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario, Canada THOMAS A. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park ELLEN K. SILBERGELD, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, Maryland STEVEN M. STANLEY, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland VICTORIA I. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida National Research Council Staff STEPHEN RATTTEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director MORGAN GOPNTK, Assistant Executive Director GREGORY SYMMES, Reports Officer IlM MALLORY, Administrative Officer SAND! FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate SUSAN SHERWIN, Project Assistant V1

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PREFACE At the request of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the Committee on Seismology of the National Research Council established the Pane! on Seismological Research Requirements for a Comprehensive Test-Ban Monitoring System to address issues associated with establishing an International Seismic Monitoring System (TSMS) for verifying a Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Major decisions are now being made at an international level that wait affect seismologi- cal monitoring and research efforts for the next few decades. A global network of high- quaTity seismic arrays and broadband stations will provide data to the ISMS, with participating states having access to the data for national treaty verification functions. The ISMS data can be used to augment both earthquake monitoring and basic earth science research capabilities in the United States, as long as the data characteristics are adequate and the data are readily available to the broad seismological community in a timely manner. Issues considered in this report include specifications of ISMS instrumentation, mechanisms that must be established to provide general access to ISMS data, and the U.S. research infrastructure needed to support the ISMS and national verification functions. This report provides recommendations on both specific technical issues and broader policy issues related to U.S. participation in the new monitoring system. The recommendations are organized ureter three specific charges to the panel, which are presented in filll in Appendix A. - V11

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in ~ 863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineenng was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in ~ 970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identi- fy issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in ~ 9 ~ 6 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. . . . vail

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TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Recommendations, 3 Data Characteristics, 3 Data Access Within the United States, 4 Research Feedback, 6 2 INTRODUCTION Planned International Seismic Monitoring System, ~ 0 Existing Seismological Systems, 13 ISMS DATA CHARACTERISTICS Introduction and Background, 23 Discussion of TSMS Station Technical Requirements, 25 Desired Raw and Processed ISMS Data Streams, 3 ~ 1 9 23 DISTRIBUTION OF ISMS DATA WITHIN THE UNITED STATES 33 Introduction and Background, 34 Agencies with an Interest in Seismic Data, 34 Seismic Waveform Data, 35 Seismological Event Bulletins, 38 Fundamental Guidelines for Data Access Issues, 42 Agency-Specific Recommendations Concerning Data Access, 46 5 ISMS AND U.S. NATIONAL VERIFICATION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INFRASTRUCTURE Introduction and Background, 54 U.S. Research and Development Tnfrastracture, 59 REFERENCES APPENDIX A: CHARGE TO THE PANEL APPENDIX B: RESEARCH TOPICS FOR CTBT SEISMIC MONITORING APPENDIX C: ACRONYM LIST 1X 53 69 71 73 79

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LIST OF FIGI~ES 2.1 Conceptual mode! for the International Seismic Monitoring System 12 2.2 Schematic of the current structure ofthe U.S. treaty verification, earthquake monitoring, and basic research seismological efforts. 2.3 Distribution of GSETT-3 primary stations 16 18 2.4 Distribution of stations of U.S. Geological Survey regional networks 19 2.5 Distribution of global seismic stations contributing to ISC 20 2.6 Distribution of stations of the Federation of Digital Seismographic 22 Networks x

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SEISMOLOGICAL RESEARCH REQUIREMENTS FOR A COMPREHENSIVE TEST-BAN MONITORING SYSTEM

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