FIRE- AND SMOKE-RESISTANT INTERIOR MATERIALS FOR COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT

Committee on Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors

National Materials Advisory Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

Publication NMAB-477-1

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C. 1995



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Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Interior Materials for Commercial Transport Aircraft FIRE- AND SMOKE-RESISTANT INTERIOR MATERIALS FOR COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT Committee on Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors National Materials Advisory Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council Publication NMAB-477-1 National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1995

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Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Interior Materials for Commercial Transport Aircraft NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study by the National Materials Advisory Board was conducted under Grant No. FAA-93-G-033 with the U.S. Department of Transportation. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 95-73091 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05389-7 Available in limited supply from: National Materials Advisory Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW HA-262 Washington, D.C. 20418 202-334-3505 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) B701 Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Interior Materials for Commercial Transport Aircraft COMMITTEE ON FIRE- AND SMOKE-RESISTANT MATERIALS FOR COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT INTERIORS ELI M. PEARCE (Chair), Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New York BRUCE T. DeBONA, AlliedSignal, Morristown, New Jersey FREDERICK L. DRYER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey HOWARD W. EMMONS, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts TAKASHI KASHIWAGI, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland BARBARA C. LEVIN, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland JAMES E. McGRATH, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg JAMES M. PETERSON, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle, Washington PATRICIA A. TATEM, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. Technical Adviser SCOTT CAMPBELL, Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, California Liaison Representatives THOR EKLUND, Federal Aviation Administration, Atlantic City International Airport, New Jersey RICHARD LYON, Federal Aviation Administration, Atlantic City International Airport, New Jersey National Materials Advisory Board Staff THOMAS E. MUNNS, Senior Program Officer AIDA C. NEEL, Senior Project Assistant JOHN A. HUGHES, Research Associate

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Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Interior Materials for Commercial Transport Aircraft NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD JAMES C. WILLIAMS (Chair), GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, Ohio JAN D. ACHENBACH, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois BILL R. APPLETON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee ROBERT R. BEEBE, Homestake Mining Company (Retired), Tucson, Arizona I. MELVIN BERNSTEIN, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts J. KEITH BRIMACOMBE, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada JOHN V. BUSCH, IBIS Associates, Inc., Wellesley, Massachusetts HARRY E. COOK, University of Illinois, Urbana ROBERT EAGAN, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico CAROLYN HANSSON, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada KRISTINA M. JOHNSON, University of Colorado, Boulder LIONEL C. KIMERLING, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JAMES E. McGRATH, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg RICHARD S. MULLER, University of California, Berkeley ELSA REICHMANIS, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey EDGAR A. STARKE, University of Virginia, Charlottesville JOHN STRINGER, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan JAMES W. WAGNER, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland JOSEPH G. WIRTH, Raychem Corporation, Menlo Park, California ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, Director

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Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Interior Materials for Commercial Transport Aircraft Acknowledgments The hospitality shown by employees of Boeing Commercial Airplane Group in hosting the committee's site visit and the time and effort taken in meetings and presentations are greatly appreciated. Individuals who prepared presentations or conducted factory and assembly line tours included James Likes, chief engineer for Interiors, Everett Division; Bruce Alexander, Interiors Engineering; Alan Anderson, chief payloads engineer; John Daniels, Production Engineering; Robert Elliot, Technology and Product Development; Sally Hasselbrack, Materials and Process Engineering; Kenneth Fairchild, factory manager; Mark Fee, Interiors Design; and Peter Guard, Technology and Product Development. The committee's time at Boeing provided a practical view of what goes into the design and production of an aircraft interior. The committee acknowledges Craig Egenes and Ken Dowd of Walter, Dorwin, Teague and Associates for their presentations on aircraft cabin architecture and interior design. The committee also thanks the individuals who participated in the Conference on Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials. The information and ideas generated at the conference were invaluable to the committee's work. In particular, the effort that the invited speakers expended in preparing papers and presentations for the conference is appreciated. Papers were presented by Hans-Dieter Berg, Deutche Aerospace Airbus; Hanns-Jöerg Betz, Lufthansa German Airlines; Dougal D. Drysdale, University of Edinburgh; Sally A. Hasselbrack, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group; Thomas E. McSweeny, Federal Aviation Administration; Thomas M. Murray, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group; David Purser, Fire Research Station, U.K.; James G. Quintiere, University of Maryland; Constantine P. Sarkos, Federal Aviation Administration; Swen J. Schaich, Deutche Aerospace Airbus; Usman Sorathia, Naval Surface Warfare Center; Archie Tewarson, Factory Mutual Research Corporation; Edward D. Weil, Polytechnic University; Charles A. Wilkie, Marquette University; and Martel Zeldin, City University of New York. Also the committee acknowledges the efforts of the workshop session chairs: Stephanie Skaggs, New Mexico Engineering Research Institute; Richard Gann, National Institute of Standards and Technology; Dennis Nollen, DuPont; and John Rock, Amoco Performance Products. The committee is particularly grateful to the Federal Aviation Administration liaison representatives, Thor Eklund and Richard Lyon, for their participation in a number of committee discussions. The chair of the committee thanks the members for their dedication and patience during the preparation of the conference proceedings and the study report. Their diligence and goodwill made for an unusually effective team effort. Finally, the committee gratefully acknowledges the support of Thomas E. Munns, National Materials Advisory Board senior program officer and Aida C. Neel, National Materials Advisory Board senior project assistant.

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Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Interior Materials for Commercial Transport Aircraft Preface The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has established an Advanced Fire Safe Materials Research Program to meet the requirements of the Aviation Safety Research Act of 1988. The program's objective is "to discover the fundamental relationships between the composition and structure of materials and their behavior in fires to enable the design of a totally fire-resistant cabin for future commercial aircraft. Research will be basic in nature and will focus on synthesis, characterization, modeling, and processing of new materials and material combinations to improve the fire performance, increase the functionality, and reduce the cost of next-generation cabin materials." The FAA requested that the National Research Council, through its National Materials Advisory Board, recommend long-term research directions in promising areas based on projected technology. Towards this end, the National Research Council established the Committee on Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors. This committee met several times during the course of its study and development of this report. The committee itself was balanced in regard to the varied science and technology aspects required for such an interdisciplinary study. The committee hosted a Conference on Fire-and Smoke-Resistant Materials, which was held at the National Academy of Sciences on November 8–10, 1994. Conference attendees included representatives from industry, government, and academia. The conference participants identified trends in aircraft fire safety and suggested promising research directions for the FAA's program in smoke- and fire-resistant materials. The conference proceedings, containing 15 invited papers and summaries of the workshop sessions, have been published and serve as an important resource for the preparation of the committee's report. The ultimate product of this committee report are the conclusions and recommendations on research opportunities that meet the requirements of the Aviation Safety Research Act of 1988. The committee strongly supports these conclusions and recommendations, and as experts in this area are very much aware of the high-priority urgency for support of these recommendations, even in these difficult times of "downsizing" research. A commitment to a longer-term view will allow us to have the necessary materials for fire safety for the new construction required for continued economical air transportation, as well as keeping the United States in its traditional leadership role in passenger aircraft construction. Comments and suggestions that readers of this report wish to make can be sent via Internet electronic mail to nmab@nas.edu or by FAX to the National Materials Advisory Board (202) 334-3718. Eli M. Pearce Chair, Committee on Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors

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Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Interior Materials for Commercial Transport Aircraft Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   6     Statement of the Problem,   6     Accident Statistics,   6     Statement of Objectives,   9 2   DESIGN AND FUNCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR AIRCRAFT INTERIOR MATERIALS   12     Materials of Construction,   12     Weight,   17     Cost,   17     Manufacturability and Producibility,   18     Comfort,   19     Maintainability,   20     Aesthetics,   21 3   EVALUATION OF MATERIALS FIRE PERFORMANCE   22     Fire Safety,   22     Fire Scenarios,   23     Fire Models,   26     Testing and Fire-Safety Assessment,   27 4   DEVELOPMENT OF CANDIDATE MATERIALS FOR FUTURE INTERIORS   29     Combustion of Polymers,   29     Development of Materials,   30     Manufacturing,   34     Theoretical Modeling of Polymer Combustion,   36 5   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES   39     Materials,   40     Component Design and Manufacturing,   40     Fire Scenarios,   41     REFERENCES   45     APPENDICES     A   GLOSSARY OF TERMS   51 B   FAA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT   53 C   CURRENT FIRE-MODELING CAPABILITIES   61

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Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Interior Materials for Commercial Transport Aircraft D   TOXICITY MODELING AND TESTING   65 E   BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS   69

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Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Interior Materials for Commercial Transport Aircraft List of Figures and Tables FIGURES 1-1   Fatal accident rates and fatalities   7 1-2   Jet aircraft in service and annual departures,   8 1-3   Annual accident rates,   8 1-4   Causes of accidents in final approach and landing,   9 1-5   Fatalities classified by type of accident,   10 1-6   Primary causes of fatal accidents,   10 2-1   Aircraft interior cabin liner components,   12 2-2   Considerations in inclusive design criteria,   13 2-3   Typical cabin panel constructions,   14 2-4   Typical seat construction,   19 3-1   Summary of in-flight and on-ground smoke and fire accidents,   24 TABLES 1-1   Summary of Fatal Accidents,   9 2-1   Materials Applications in Current Commercial Aircraft,   15 2-2   FAA Flammability Requirements for Cabin Liners,   16 C-1   Characteristics and Limitations of Fire-Hazard Assessment Models,   63

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