APPENDIX A
Glossary of Terms


Aircraft accident:

an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft that takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, in which any person suffers death or serious injury as a result of being in or upon the aircraft or by direct contact with the aircraft or anything attached thereto, or the aircraft receives substantial damage (Murray, 1995).

Aircraft interior:

the components and systems that are contained inside the pressure shell, that is, the pressurized part of the aircraft fuselage.

Assist (or Abuse) loads:

design loads associated with hard use including bumping, pushing, and pulling handles.


Burn length:

the distance from the original specimen edge to the farthest evidence of damage to the test specimen due to that area's combustion (FAA, 1990).


Char:

carbonaceous material formed by pyrolysis or incomplete combustion (ASTM, 1994).

Controlled flight into terrain (CFIT):

aircraft accident scenario wherein the aircraft crashed into the ground while under control of the flight crew.

Crocking:

damage of textiles caused by abrasion.


Extinguishing time:

the time that the material continues to flame after the flame source is removed (FAA, 1990).


Field models:

fire models based on the division of a volume into a large number of computational cells and the application of finite difference techniques to provide numerical solutions to partial differential equations representing conservation of mass, energy, and momentum for each chemical species.

Fire gases:

airborne products emitted by a material undergoing pyrolysis or combustion that exist in the gas phase at the relevant temperature (ASTM, 1994).

Fire hazard:

the potential for harm associated with fire (ASTM, 1994).

Fire-hazard assessment models:

fire models that combine zone and field models with submodels for fire endurance, activation of thermal detectors or sprinkler systems, generation of toxic gases, evacuation, and survival models.

Fire risk:

an estimation of expected fire loss that weighs fire hazards associated with various fire scenarios with the probability of occurrence of those scenarios.

Flame spread:

a measure of the rate of burning that is derived from the rate of progress of the flame front.

Flashover:

the point at which most of the combustible materials in an enclosed space reach their ignition temperatures at essentially the same time, so that the materials seem to burst into flame simultaneously.


Heat release:

a measure of the amount of energy evolved by a material when burned (FAA, 1990).

Heat release rate:

the rate at which heat energy is evolved by a material when burned. The maximum heat release rate occurs when the material is burning most intensely (FAA, 1990).


Ignitability:

ease of ignition (i.e., initiation of combustion; ASTM, 1994).

Intumescence:

swelling or foaming of a material upon exposure to a critical level of thermal energy.


LC50:

the concentration of a toxic substance that causes death in 50 percent of test organisms in a specified time.

Limit loads:

typical flight loads.


Nonpiloted ignition:

the initiation of combustion without contact with an external, high-energy source. The surface temperature of a material must become high enough to act as an induced pilot to initiate gas-phase oxidation reactions and attain ignition.


Oxygen-temperature index:

a measure of the percentage of oxygen required for a material to continue to burn at specific temperatures.


Piloted ignition:

the initiation of combustion as a result of contact of a material or its vapors with an external, high-energy source (ASTM, 1994).

Pyrolysis:

irreversible chemical decomposition caused by heat, usually without oxidation (ASTM, 1994).


Smoke:

airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases evolved when a material undergoes pyrolysis or combustion (ASTM, 1994).

Specific optical density:

a dimensionless measure of the amount of smoke produced per unit area based on light transmittance measurements (FAA, 1990).

Survivable accident:

an accident in which the fuselage remains relatively intact, the crash forces do not exceed the levels of human tolerance, there are adequate occupant restraints, and there are sufficient escape provisions (Murray, 1995).



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Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Interior Materials for Commercial Transport Aircraft APPENDIX A Glossary of Terms Aircraft accident: an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft that takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, in which any person suffers death or serious injury as a result of being in or upon the aircraft or by direct contact with the aircraft or anything attached thereto, or the aircraft receives substantial damage (Murray, 1995). Aircraft interior: the components and systems that are contained inside the pressure shell, that is, the pressurized part of the aircraft fuselage. Assist (or Abuse) loads: design loads associated with hard use including bumping, pushing, and pulling handles. Burn length: the distance from the original specimen edge to the farthest evidence of damage to the test specimen due to that area's combustion (FAA, 1990). Char: carbonaceous material formed by pyrolysis or incomplete combustion (ASTM, 1994). Controlled flight into terrain (CFIT): aircraft accident scenario wherein the aircraft crashed into the ground while under control of the flight crew. Crocking: damage of textiles caused by abrasion. Extinguishing time: the time that the material continues to flame after the flame source is removed (FAA, 1990). Field models: fire models based on the division of a volume into a large number of computational cells and the application of finite difference techniques to provide numerical solutions to partial differential equations representing conservation of mass, energy, and momentum for each chemical species. Fire gases: airborne products emitted by a material undergoing pyrolysis or combustion that exist in the gas phase at the relevant temperature (ASTM, 1994). Fire hazard: the potential for harm associated with fire (ASTM, 1994). Fire-hazard assessment models: fire models that combine zone and field models with submodels for fire endurance, activation of thermal detectors or sprinkler systems, generation of toxic gases, evacuation, and survival models. Fire risk: an estimation of expected fire loss that weighs fire hazards associated with various fire scenarios with the probability of occurrence of those scenarios. Flame spread: a measure of the rate of burning that is derived from the rate of progress of the flame front. Flashover: the point at which most of the combustible materials in an enclosed space reach their ignition temperatures at essentially the same time, so that the materials seem to burst into flame simultaneously. Heat release: a measure of the amount of energy evolved by a material when burned (FAA, 1990). Heat release rate: the rate at which heat energy is evolved by a material when burned. The maximum heat release rate occurs when the material is burning most intensely (FAA, 1990). Ignitability: ease of ignition (i.e., initiation of combustion; ASTM, 1994). Intumescence: swelling or foaming of a material upon exposure to a critical level of thermal energy. LC50: the concentration of a toxic substance that causes death in 50 percent of test organisms in a specified time. Limit loads: typical flight loads. Nonpiloted ignition: the initiation of combustion without contact with an external, high-energy source. The surface temperature of a material must become high enough to act as an induced pilot to initiate gas-phase oxidation reactions and attain ignition. Oxygen-temperature index: a measure of the percentage of oxygen required for a material to continue to burn at specific temperatures. Piloted ignition: the initiation of combustion as a result of contact of a material or its vapors with an external, high-energy source (ASTM, 1994). Pyrolysis: irreversible chemical decomposition caused by heat, usually without oxidation (ASTM, 1994). Smoke: airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases evolved when a material undergoes pyrolysis or combustion (ASTM, 1994). Specific optical density: a dimensionless measure of the amount of smoke produced per unit area based on light transmittance measurements (FAA, 1990). Survivable accident: an accident in which the fuselage remains relatively intact, the crash forces do not exceed the levels of human tolerance, there are adequate occupant restraints, and there are sufficient escape provisions (Murray, 1995).

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Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Interior Materials for Commercial Transport Aircraft Tapestry: woven decorative fabrics that are bonded to cabin liner panels. Thermoplastic: polymers that soften and flow upon application of heat. Thermoset: polymers that, when heated, react irreversibly so that subsequent applications of heat do not cause them to soften and flow. Toxicity models: describe the toxic potency of fire atmospheres based on the toxicological interactions of the main combustion gases present. Toxic potency: a quantitative expression relating concentration (of smoke or combustion gases) and exposure time to a particular degree of adverse physiological response (e.g., the death on exposure of humans or animals) (ASTM, 1994). Ultimate loads: design loads corresponding to limit loads (typical flight loads) multiplied by a margin of safety (typically 1.5). Zone models: fire models in which compartments are subdivided into control volumes or zones. Conservation of mass, energy, and momentum is applied to each zone using algebraic representations or ordinary differential equations. REFERENCES ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). 1994. Standard Terminology of Fire Standards. Pp. 471–475 in Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.07, ASTME-176. Philadelphia, Pa.: ASTM. FAA (Federal Aviation Administration). 1990. The Materials Fire Testing Handbook. DOT/FAA/CT-89/15. Atlantic City, N.J.: FAA Technical Center. Murray, T.M. 1995. (The Boeing Company) Airplane accidents and fires. Pp. 7–23 in Improved Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors: A Proceedings. National Materials Advisory Board report NMAB-477-2. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.