the calculations. A further complication arises when limitations inherited from the numerical representation of one physical phenomenon compound, potentiate, or negate limitations inherited from the numerical representation of a second physical phenomenon.

None of the fire-hazard models was designed to be applicable to aircraft interior fires since they model rooms rather than the cylindrical geometry of an aircraft interior. The models assume uniform smoke filling the upper layer with no time lag to compensate for the length of the corridor-like space and point-source fires of an aircraft. Also, the behavior and evacuation of individuals modeled in HAZARD 1 is from one-and two-family residences which is a very different scenario from the behavior and evacuation of people from an airplane. As in all fire models, the definition of the fire will depend on the materials that are burning. New materials will need to be characterized to obtain the data necessary to input into these models. Thus, their use to model an interior fire on an aircraft will take them outside their domain of applicability.

REFERENCES

Baum, H.R., and R.G. Rehm. 1978. The equations of motion for thermally driven, buoyant flows. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards 83(3):297–308.

Baum, H.R., and R.G. Rehm. 1982a. Computation of fire induced flow and smoke coagulation. Pp. 921–931 in Nineteenth Symposium (International) of Combustion. Pittsburgh, Pa.: The Combustion Institute.

Baum, H.R., and R.G. Rehm. 1982b. Natural Computation of Large Scale Fire-Induced Flows. Paper presented at the Eighth International Conference on Numerical Methods in Fluid Dynamics, Aachen, West Germany, June 28–July 2.

Baum, H.R., and R.G. Rehm. 1984. Calculations of three dimensional buoyant plumes in enclosures. Combustion Science and Technology 40:55–77.

Bukowski, R.W., R.D. Peacock, W.W. Jones, and C.L. Forney. 1991. Technical Reference Guide for HAZARD 1 Fire Assessment Method, Version 1.1, Vol. 2. National Institute of Standards and Technology Handbook 146/II. Gaithersburg, Md.: National Institute of Standards and Technology.


Emmons, H.W. 1981. The Calculation of a Fire in a Large Building. ASME Paper 81-HT-2 for meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, August 2–5, 1981.


Hauck, R.R. 1988. Numerical Field Model Simulation of Full-Scale Fire Tests in a Closed Spherical/Cylindrical Vessel with Internal Ventilation. Unpublished master's and mechanical engineer's thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California.


Jones, W.W. 1985. A multicompartment model for the spread of fire, smoke and toxic gases. Fire Safety Journal 9:55.

Jones, W.W., and G.P. Forney. 1990. A Programmer's Reference Manual for CFAST, The Unified Model of Fire Growth and Smoke Transport. NIST Note 1283. Gaithersburg, Md.: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Jones, W.W., and R.D. Peacock. 1988. Refinement and experimental verification of a model for fire growth and smoke transport. Pp. 897–906 in the Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Fire Safety Science, T. Wakamatsu, Y. Hasemi, A. Sekizawa, P.G. Seeger, P.J. Pagni, and C.E. Grant, eds. New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corp.


Kou, H.S., K.T. Yang, and J.R. Lloyd. 1986. Turbulent buoyant flow and pressure variations around an aircraft fuselage in a cross wind near the ground. Pp. 173–184 in Fire Safety Science, Proceedings of the First International Symposium, C.E. Grant and P.J. Pagni, eds. New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corp.


Mitler, H., and H. Emmons. 1981. Documentation for CFS V, the Fifth Harvard Computer Fire Code. NBS-GCR-81-344. Gaithersburg, Md.: National Institute of Standards and Technology .


Nelson, H.E. 1990. FPEtool: Fire Protection Engineering Tools for Hazard Estimation. NISTIR 4380. Gaithersburg, Md.: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Nicolette, V.F., K.T. Yang, and J.R. Lloyd. 1985. Transient cooling by natural convection in a two-dimensional square enclosure. International Journal of Heat Transfer 28(9):1721–1732.

Nies, G.F. 1986. Numerical Field Model Simulation of Full Scale Tests in a Closed Vessel. Unpublished master's and mechanical engineer's thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California.


Raycraft, J.K. 1987. Numerical Field Model Simulation of Full Scale Fire Tests in a Closed Spherical/Cylindrical Vessel. Unpublished master's and mechanical engineer's thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California.


Tanaka, T. 1977. A Mathematical Model of a Compartment Fire. Report 70. Ibaraki-ken, Japan: Building Research Institute.

Tanaka, T. 1978. A Mathematical Model of a Compartment Fire. Report 79. Ibaraki-ken, Japan: Building Research Institute.

Tanaka, T. 1980. A Mathematical Model of a Compartment Fire. Report 84. Ibaraki-ken, Japan: Building Research Institute.


Williams, F.W., and H.W. Carhart. 1992. The Ex-Shadwell—Full Scale Fire Research and Test Ship. NRL Memorandum Report 6074. Washington, D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory.


Yang, K.T., J.R. Lloyd, A.M. Kanury, and K. Satoh. 1984. Modeling of turbulent buoyant flows in aircraft cabins. Combustion Science and Technology 39:107–118.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement