them without a reasonable assurance of employment once achieved. While institutions and corporations worry about a qualified workforce, young people worry about long-term occupational opportunity. It may be inferred that they will shy away from careers that appear to offer entry-level positions to many, but continuing employment opportunity to only a few.

S&T organizations need to be structured so that they offer a number of positions at a number of levels, with responsibilities and rewards increasing gradually and incrementally. Too often there is a tendency for organizations to become feudal in stratification, with a few amply rewarded individuals at the top and a number of workers consigned to low-level though skilled tasks that are perceived in many cases to be dispensable and, should they demand too much, replaceable. S&T can be and is often conducted this way with little harm to the task at hand. However, considerable harm is done to manpower resources when such qualities as originality and broad experience are not encouraged. This ultimately results in great harm being done to all young people who would seek a satisfying, lifelong career, which most consider to be of paramount importance.

If scientists and technologists cannot or do not want to create suitable organizations themselves, they need to hire science-informed individuals who will; and all need to argue for S&T policy that will accomplish it.

This discussion may seem like a long detour taken at the expense of traveling down what appears to be the main highway of education and its effects on S&T career choice. However, along that highway there are many intervention points, and few would argue that they shouldn't be taken advantage of and that the highway itself is variously in need of repair, upgrading, re-routing, and access ramps for those who have had unequal opportunity to use it. But if S&T careers are not in fact good places for long-term, reasonably rewarded employment, then even the best science education system will not produce new entrants into S&T careers.



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