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PART IV Utilizing Points of Intervention to Enhance and Sustain Interest in Science and Technology Careers
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Introduction to Utilizing Points of Intervention to Enhance and Sustain Interest in Science and Technology Careers Pim Fenger1 Under this topic we are going to concentrate on the science and technology (S&T) track and the decision points along which an individual may opt in or out of the career path. We have been asked to concentrate on mechanisms that have been shown to have significant effects in increasing the likelihood of an individual moving along the track. In order to highlight this subject, I have to confess that for governments these questions are not new at all. Most OECD countries have the rather uncomfortable feeling that they are entering a period of demand for highly qualified research personnel, especially in the scientific and engineering fields, which may exceed the available supply. In the Netherlands, for example, warnings can be heard about structural shortages in the supply of researchers and engineers on the medium long-term (Advisory Council for Science and Technology Policy).2 A ROA study on the labor market for research in 1990-2010 (Berendsen and Willems)3 shows that several shortages are to be expected in the hard sciences after 1995.4 The IRDAC study, Skill Shortages in Europe, indicates a low share of engineers in European industry as compared to that of the United States and Japan.5 Under the actual circumstances of weak economic growth, the existing labor market tensions are still acceptable. But, when economic growth starts gaining momentum again, the shortage of skilled technicians and researchers will be felt. the demographic development (in the year 2000 the count will be 25 percent less youngsters in the 18-24-year-old category), combined with the diminishing interest of students in natural sciences, shall aggravate the situation. This may have dramatic effects for the industry and the economy, in general, in the Netherlands. The Advisory Council for Science and Technology Policy in the Netherlands tells us that active recruitment of research and development (R&D) personnel from Eastern Europe, or the Far East, probably cannot be avoided. However, not all experts share this view. Lemstra de-dramatizes the situation that can be expected.6 As he points out, the supposed shortages are based on extrapolations of figures from the late 1980s, an economic boom period with high investment rates into new projects—the chemical sector in particular. Corporate research laboratories smoothly accommodated new generations of chemists, physicists, and engineers. Now, in 1993, the situation has changed. The opening up of Eastern European markets gave rise to cheap imports from these countries with negative effects on the growth rates of western bulk chemical and steel industry. Money for investment in research projects involving large risks is lacking. Besides, the increased environmental consciousness of society has led to political priorities favoring recycled materials. Composite and complex materials are squared to the concept of recycling. Lemstra foresees not so much a quantitative problem as qualitative deficiencies. Improvements in the quality of formation should start at the teacher level in secondary education. Government concerns have been very well expressed in the 1989 OECD report, Research Manpower: Managing Supply and Demand.7 This report was prepared by R. J. Kavanagh (Canada) and
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Alan Fechter (United States) under the aegis of the OECD Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy, by its Group on Scientific and University Research. The report learned that within member countries two categories of action can be distinguished between supply and demand for research manpower: recruitment methods and retention methods. RECRUITMENT METHODS Examples reported of recruitment methods include: persuading more women to choose science and engineering careers; improving the quality of science and mathematics teaching in schools; encouraging a greater proportion of young persons to follow science and mathematics courses while in school so that, subsequently, they will be qualified to enter university courses in science or engineering; encouraging more first degree graduates to continue postgraduate training; providing opportunities for employing scientists and engineers to return to university in order to undertake postgraduate studies; providing special opportunities for children from certain social, racial, or ethnic groups to overcome historical barriers and enter science or engineering education programs; and creating a greater awareness of the opportunities of challenging careers in R&D. RETENTION METHODS Techniques geared to reducing the attrition of science and engineering students, and retaining research-trained persons in the R&D workforce by providing appropriate employment opportunities, can be referred to as retention methods. In general, these techniques seek to reduce the waste of potential research personnel from the educational system and train research personnel from the pool of such persons. Techniques falling into this category include methods of ensuring that as many qualified students as possible complete their science and engineering degrees at both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels, methods of preventing the exit of qualified doctoral graduates in certain fields where temporary surpluses exist from research enterprises, and policies affecting the retention of students from other countries. From the viewpoint of the government, the added value of this panel may be that by studying some of the techniques mentioned in the OECD report in more depth and, above all, by assessing some techniques, the governments may know and understand more than they did three years ago. It is the role of our speakers, Kazuo Ishizaka and Dervilla Donnelly, to help us with this assessment in our discussion following their contributions. Another reason why government is interested in the results of this conference originates from the Technology-Economy Program (TEP) of OECD.8 The impressive TEP reports on technology in a changing world are focused on the relationships between science, technology, and economic growth. The TEP reports and policy recommendations (accepted by the OECD Ministerial Council in 1991) have widened the scope of R&D policies in many countries. Traditionally, S&T policies in advanced countries were conceptualized within the framework of the so-called knowledge trajectory (Dosi)9—a continuum with basic research at the far left, mission-oriented research and applied research in the middle, and developmental work at the far right. To optimize the utility of all these research activities and their interrelationships, S&T policies were concentrated on the transfer mechanisms between the various activities. TEP, however, has added at least three important dimensions to R&D policies when it comes to their contribution to economic growth: TEP stressed the importance of social acceptance of new technologies, and the knowledge and abilities of the working to handle new technologies. TEP made us fully aware of the fact that all those institutions with their own distinctive missions on the knowledge trajectory had to be staffed by people with the right qualifications. Under the influence of TEP, the concept of knowledge transfer is being translated and operationalized more and more toward the concept of people transfer.10 As a result of this very differentiated approach to
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human resources, we see that R&D policies are becoming more open to and integrated with educational polices for basic, secondary, and vocational training. A third reason for government interest in the assessment of points of intervention lies in recent policies for research training within and in networks involving universities. The development of universities in the past two centuries is marked by two important innovations. The first was the introduction of explicit research tasks within universities: the combination of educational and research tasks within one institution. This innovation of Von Humboldt dates back to 1808, after the failure of an earlier attempt by the French encyclopedists.11 And, since then, universities have picked up their research mission in a remarkable way. The second social innovation of tremendous importance was the introduction of the idea of mass higher education after World War II. Of course the combination of education and research, and the demand for mass higher education cannot be managed easily (Hazeu).12 Policy initiatives in Europe, now being taken, to let universities fulfill both missions of higher education and functionally-related educational and research tasks are strongly similar. In general terms, these developments can be considered as the introduction of the American graduate school model on a European scale. Good examples are the Graduierten Kollegs in Germany, the Ecoles Doctorales in France, the Networks in Belgium, and the Research Schools in the Netherlands.13 Generally, they can be seen as an attempt to make Ph.D. training relevant to a wider range of occupational positions than has traditionally been the case in Europe. On the other hand, they are also inspired by a shortage of teachers in higher education, which can be expected within the next decade (Blume).14 In my own country, the main reasons for the emergence of researchers were the needs for (1) training top quality researchers, (2) structuring research training within the second phase, (3) improving the national research infrastructure to compete better in the international field, (4) strategic concentration of scarce research capacity to avoid fragmentation and generating a critical mass by means of cooperation between universities themselves and the related research environment, and (5) selecting to improve quality of both trainer and supervisor (Hazeu).15 In order to receive accreditation by a committee attached to the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Science, a research school must meet 10 characteristics, among which we find a research school as a real center of excellent research, having a minimal size of 40-50 research trainees (critical-mass), and being part of one or more universities. Furthermore, a research school should be an independent organizational unit with its own budget responsibilities. In this way, a research school can meet the expectation that, where possible, it should cooperate with research organizations outside the university system (Berendsen and Willems). And, indeed, one of the criteria for accreditation is the requirement that a research school has to make clear that it has seriously considered multi-year cooperation agreements with research institutions of excellent quality outside the university system. This may lead to a major improvement in the infrastructure of research training.16 For instance, the Philips Physical Laboratory has offered to open its facilities to research training ends. Such types of efficient uses of national scarce resources that provide the right scientific climate that stimulates research and research training can also be found outside Europe. Good examples can be found in Australia and Canada. In Canada, for instance, networks of Centers of Excellence have been created since 1988 that link the facilities in universities, in government research establishments, and in industry (Blume). A report of these new forms of research training is now being prepared by OECD. Stuart Blume17, Professor of Science Dynamics at the University of Amsterdam, has been appointed as the rapporteur. Hopefully the conclusions of this conference and the results and policy recommendations of the OECD report will reinforce each other, thus having further impact on the work of the OECD Group on the Science System,18 as well as on national policies. NOTES 1. This contribution does not commit any authority. Thanks are due to Jacky R. Bax. 2. Advisory Council for Science and Technology Policy (AWT). 1992. Technici en Onderzoekers: kwaliteit en kwantiteit. SDU. Den Haag. 3. Berendsen, H. A. de Grip and E. J. T. A. Willems. 1991. De Arbeidsmarkt voor Onderzoekers (The labor market for researchers). 1990-2010. ROA. Den Haag.
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4. Supply surplus and shortages of researchers in the hard sciences: totals and as percentage of expected employment for researchers in that category. Education 1990-1995 2006-2010 total % total % University -580 -2 -5.250 -11 of which: Agriculture 880 37 200 6 Natural Sciences and Mathematics -1.570 -14 -3.560 -22 Technical 750 6 -960 -5 Medical -640 -7 -930 -9 Higher Vocational -2.490 -8 -7.320 -16 Secondary -3.380 -17 -4.970 -20 SOURCE: ROA (see Note 2). 5. Industrial R&D Advisory Committee of the CEC (IRDAC).1990. Skill Shortages in Europe. Brussels. 6. Lemstra, P. J. 1992. Toekomstig tekort aan ingenieurs wordt overschat. In VSNU-opinie, Februari 1993. Utrecht. 7. OECD. 1989. Research Manpower: Managing Supply and Demand. Paris. 8. OECD. 1991. Technology-Economy Programme (TEP). Technology in a Changing World. Paris. OECD. 1991. TEP; Technology and Productivity. Paris. 9. Dosi, G. 1982. Technological Paradigms and Technological Trajectories. In: Research Policy 11; 147. 10. See for instance IRDAC (1992) Opinion on Biomedical Research. Brussels. We can also refer to working documents of the Commission (EC) on the 4th Framework programme, where the mobility of researchers is explicitly seen as a critical variable in the transfer of technology. 11. Fenger, P. 1992. Tradition on a Variable in Systems Analysis: The Case of the Universities. In: World Futures. Vol. 34. Gordon and Breach. New York. 12. Hazeu, C. A. 1991. Research Policy and the Shaping of Research Schools in the Netherlands. In: Higher Education Management, OECD. Vol. 3, No. 3. Paris. 13. Fenger, P. 1992. Graduate Research Training in a Number of European Countries and the United States. In: Bulletin de Methodologie Sociologique, nr. 34, March, Paris. 14. Blume, S. S., (rapporteur). 1991. Postgraduate Research Training Today: Emerging Structures for a Changing Europe. Report of the Temporary International Consultative Committee on New Organisational Forms of Graduate Research Training. The Hague. 15. See Note 11. 16. Fenger, P. 1993. University and Non-university Opportunities for Postgraduate Research Training. Forum Sozialforschung. Vienna. 17. Papers prepared for the OECD Workshop on Research Training (chair prof. S. S. Blume, University of Amsterdam) Amsterdam 17, 18 March 1993. 18. The OECD Committee on Science and Technology Policy decided in March 1993 to change the name of its Group on University and Research Policy to the Group on the Science System.
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Human Development of Science and Technology in Japan: From the Classroom to the Business World Kazuo Ishizaka INTRODUCTION Japan has experienced two major educational reforms. The first took place in 1872, some 120 years ago under the Meiji Restoration, establishing a modern, multi-line education system. The second major reform took place immediately after World War II, implementing the United States' "single-line 6-3-3-4 system" as a model. Although the modern education system actually started after Japan abandoned its isolation policy under the Tokugawa Shogunate feudal system, there were prior to that well over 20,000 to 50,000 "Terakoyas," a form of very small private schools with one or two teachers, throughout the country. These Terakoyas and other forms of schools became a solid foundation for the first educational reform. From the outset of the first reform in 1872, the Meiji Restoration government started a democratic primary education open to any child of any school attendance district regardless of sex, social status, or means. Both of the major educational reforms, however, were accomplished in extraordinary social and political situations. The intended third reform has started from a rather different situation. Since the second reform, various improvements to education have been made. Among others, the Central Council on Education (CCE), an advisory body to the Minister of Education, Science, and Culture (MOE), studied basic educational policies and planning at the request of the Education Minister. In 1971, CCE submitted its twenty-second report, Basic Guidelines for the Development of Integrated Education System Suited for Contemporary Society (frequently called Yonroku Tosin). This report was intended to make revolutionary improvements to Japanese education from kindergarten through university. However, Japan experienced more rapid changes than expected. The change in our society has been quite rapid, causing a number of problems to arise in various stages of education. In order to respond to the changing social circumstances, the national government decided to establish an Ad Hoc Council on Educational Reform [now officially called the National Council on Educational Reform (NCER)] in August 1984, directly under the Prime Minister's Office, to reexamine our educational policies and practices in order to make the third major educational reform in our history. The council did a comprehensive study on the various government policies in education and other related fields, and, on the basis of these studies, submitted four sets of recommendations to the Prime Minister. After submitting the final report, NCER disbanded in August 1987. Statistical Outline of Current Japanese Education The present Japanese school system, brought into being during the postwar U.S. armed forces occupation between 1947 and 1950, provides for six years of primary/elementary school and three years of lower secondary school (junior high school), followed by a
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non-compulsory three years of upper secondary school and four years (six in the medical field) of university. Since Japan implemented the U.S. model, a number of new types of schools were added to meet the needs of our changing society. There are two-/three-year junior colleges (in 1950), five-year technical colleges (1962) for graduates of lower secondary schools, and special training schools (1976) for graduates of both lower and upper secondary schools. Japanese elementary schools, lower secondary schools, and technical colleges are public dominant, while kindergartens, junior colleges and universities, and special training schools are private dominant in terms of school enrollment. As of May 1991, ratios of students enrolled in private elementary schools, lower secondary schools, upper secondary schools, and technical colleges were 0.710 percent, 4.07 percent, 28.9 percent, and 5.7 percent, respectively; however, the latter enrollment shares of private institutions were 78.9 percent, 91.9 percent, 73.0 percent, and 94.5 percent, respectively. No vocational/technical courses are offered during the first nine years of compulsory schooling. Moreover, there is no tracking system in public elementary and lower secondary schools. Since May 1991, approximately 74 percent of the students in upper secondary schools were enrolled in general courses and 13.6 percent were enrolled in technical courses. A little over 90 percent (1,803,221) of 18-year-old graduates of upper secondary schools and about 54 percent of the upper secondary graduates advance to higher institutions, including 25.5 percent to 4-year universities and 12.2 percent to junior colleges, as of May 1991. The annual number of graduates from 4-year colleges and universities is 428,079. In May 1991, 14,217 (3.32 percent), 86,115 (20.1 percent), and 14,854 (3.47 percent) of these students were in the fields of science, technology, and agriculture (MOE, 1992). RECENT EFFORTS AT THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH The National Institute for Educational Research (NIER) of Japan was established in 1949 as an organ of the MOE. NIER has been conducting basic and applied research on education in a wide range of educational fields. Based on the recommendation of the NCER that worked directly under the Prime Minister's Office during 1984-1987, NIER was reorganized in May 1989 and is expected to strengthen its function to provide foundations for educational policies as well as to enrich its function as a national curriculum center. Some of the concrete measures now underway are as follows: Conduct work and basic research on educational policies and practices. Conduct research on school curricula, teaching materials, teaching methods, and other educational topics for elementary, lower, and upper secondary schools so that the research results can be utilized by the nationwide education systems and schools. Strengthen cooperation with nationwide educational research institutions [National Federation of Educational Research Institutes (NFERI)], as well as international organizations such as UNESCO, OECD, and the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). As of June 1992, 267 prefectural, municipal, and private educational research institutions in Japan were affiliated with NFERI, whose headquarters is within NIER and where the Director-General of NIER serves as a chairman. NFERI has been conducting nationwide joint research projects, mostly in school education. Since joining the IEA, NIER has participated in the following IEA studies: First International Mathematics Studies (1962-1967) First International Science Studies (1966-1971) Second International Mathematics Studies (1975-1981) Second International Science Studies (1980-1988) Computers in Education Study (1987- ) Third International Mathematics and Science Study (1991- ) As one of the Associated Centers in Japan for UNESCO's Asia and the Pacific Program of Educational Innovation for Development, NIER sponsors several times a year workshops and seminars for educators from Asia and the Pacific regions. For
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example, a 1992 workshop was entitled "Regional Seminar on Goals, Aims, and Objectives of Secondary Education in Asia and the Pacific," and held at NIER from June 12-27, 1992. PRE- AND IN-SERVICE TRAINING OF SCHOOL TEACHERS: GRADES 1-12 Current Pre-service Training: Mathematics and Science Teachers Elementary and secondary school teachers in Japan are trained at universities and junior colleges approved by the MOE. The majority of teachers are currently trained at colleges and universities. Although teaching certificates are issued by each prefecture, they are valid for life and for every school in Japan. Teacher training in Japan started with the establishment of a "normal school" in Tokyo in 1872 when Japan implemented the European multi-line 6-5-33 education system. For the next 80 years, elementary school teachers (for grades 1-6 and 7-8, the latter being upper elementary schools) were trained mainly by normal schools that were established in every prefecture in Japan. Middle school teachers (grades 7-11) were trained mainly by higher "normal schools." The teacher training system was completely revised on the advice of the United States Education Mission immediately after World War II. Since the Educational Personnel Certification Law promulgated in 1949, teacher training has generally been carried out at junior colleges and four-year colleges and universities. The majority of current teachers have been trained at four-year colleges and universities. Normal schools were reorganized as four-year teacher colleges (Gakugei Universities), and the majority of current elementary school teachers are graduates of National Gakugei Universities. The 1949 revised pre-service teacher training curriculum had three basic elements: general education, teacher education, and professional education. The teacher training curriculum was improved in 1990 to meet the needs of a changing society. According to a revised law, there are now two kinds of teaching certificates: a regular teaching certificate and a temporary one. The former is valid for all prefectures for life and is divided into first and second class. A temporary certificate is issued when authorities cannot find teachers holding regular certificates and is valid for only three years. However, teacher shortages are extremely rare and temporary certificates rarely issued. The basic requirement for the first class certificate for kindergarten, elementary, and lower secondary schools is a bachelor's degree, while for upper secondary schools a master's degree, or the completion of non-degree courses for graduate school (Senkoka), is required. The basic requirement for the second class certificate for kindergarten, elementary, and lower secondary schools is to be a graduate of a two-year junior college, while for upper secondary schools a bachelor's degree is required. Table 1 shows the minimum requirements for a regular teaching certificate for elementary, lower, and upper secondary school teachers, and Table 2 shows the minimum requirements, courses, and credit requirements for mathematics and science teaching certificates. A lecture class of 15 hours, requiring 30 hours of student preparation, yields 1 credit. A seminar class of 30 hours, requiring 15 hours of student preparation, yields 1 credit. Laboratory classes require 45 hours in the laboratory for one credit. Professional subjects include educational principles, educational psychology, teaching methods, studies of moral education, teaching practice (student teaching), etc. TABLE 1 Minimum Requirements for Regular Teacher Certificates Credits to be Earned Types of Certificate Basic Qualification Teaching Subject Profess Subject Elementary Schools (GI-6) 1st class Bachelor's Degree 16 32 2nd class Associate B.A. 8 22 or equivalent Lower S.S. (G7-9) 1st class Bachelor's Degree 40 (A type) 14 Bachelor's Degree 32 (B type) 14 2nd class Associate B.A. 20 (A type) 10 or equivalent 16 (B type) 10 Upper S.S. (G10-12) 1st class Master's Degree 62 (A type) 14 or equivalent 16 (B type) 14 2nd class Bachelor's Degree 40 (A type) 14 Bachelor's Degree 32 (B type) 14 NOTE: A-type certificates are for science, social studies, etc. B-type certificates are for mathematics, Japanese language, etc.
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TABLE 2 Major Subject Studies Required for Mathematics and Science (as of April 1986) Subject for Certificate Major Subject Studies Minimum Number of Credits Mathematics Algebra 4 Geometry 4 Analysis 4 Statistics 2 Surveying 2 TOTAL 20 Science Physics (including exp) 5 Chemistry (including exp) 5 Biology (including exp) 5 Geology (including exp) 5 TOTAL 20 Upcoming Pre-service Training: Mathematics and Science Teachers In order to upgrade the quality of school teachers, the Educational Personnel Certification Law was partially revised in December 1988 to introduce an ''advanced kind" teaching certificate that commands a master's degree as a basic requirement. The law was implemented for freshmen entering April 1, 1990, and a complete revision of the law was made on April 2, 1991. The following article is based on the revised 1991 Educational Personnel Certification Law. New teaching certificates may be classified into three major categories: regular, special, and temporary. The regular certificate is subdivided into three kinds—the advanced, the first, and the second—as shown in Table 3. Tables 4 and 5 show the minimum curriculum requirements for teachers of mathematics, science, and other technical fields. The special certificate is designed to attract those who are working in the non-teaching sectors, who have an interest in the teaching profession, and who can bring knowledge and techniques into the classroom. The temporary certificate serves the same purpose as the previously stated Educational Personnel Certification Law. Teachers are required to be trained in line with the special law for educational personnel, and various inservice training programs have been developed nationwide. For example, MOE (Monbusho) offers annual training courses for national and local public school principals and head teachers. Approximately TABLE 3 Minimum Requirements for Revised Teacher Certificates Credits to be Earned Types of Certificates Basic Qualification Tchg Subj (TS) Prof Subj (PS) TS/PS Elementary Schools (GI-6) Advd kind Master's Degree 18 41 24 1st kind Bachelor's Degree 18 41 2nd kind Associate B.A. or equivalent 10 27 Lower S.S (G7-9) Advd kind Master's Degree 40 19 24 1st kind Bachelor's Degree 40 19 2nd kind Associate B.A. 20 15 Upper S.S. (GI0-12) Advd kind Master's Degree 40 19 24 1st kind Bachelor's Degree 40 19 5,000 school teachers are selected annually from all parts of Japan and sent to various countries to gain an international viewpoint. Each prefecture and municipal board of education has its own systematic in-service program. Every prefecture has at least one large education center to provide in-service training as well as research activities. A number of teachers can obtain scholarships to further their studies. For example, a little over 400 teachers annually obtain scholarships to work toward master's degrees. Approximately 90 percent of them study at the newly-established graduate schools designed for teachers. Based on a law promulgated in May 1988, a new and strong in-service program has been implemented to provide all new teachers with one full year of training. During the 1990 academic year, one year of compulsory training started for all new teachers of public elementary and lower secondary schools. Various other forms of in-service training programs have been designed by national, local, or school levels to meet the changing social and technological circumstances. CERTIFICATION SYSTEM OF TEACHERS OF HIGHER EDUCATION Qualifications for teachers at colleges and universities (including graduate school), junior colleges, and technical colleges are specified in the MOE ordinances entitled "Standards for the Establishment of
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TABLE 4 Major Subject Studies Required for Mathematics and Science for Lower Secondary Teachers (as of April 2, 1991) Subject for Certificate Major Subject Studies Minimum Number of Credits Mathematics Algebra 6 or 4 Geometry 6 or 4 Analysis 4 Probability & Statistics 4 or 2 Computer 2 TOTAL 20 Science Physics 3 Physics Experiment † 2 Chemistry 3 Chemistry Experiment † 2 Biology 3 Biology Experiment † 2 Geology 3 Geology Experiment † 2 TOTAL 20 † Includes computer use. TABLE 5 Major Subject Studies Required for Mathematics and Science for Upper Secondary Teachers (as of April 2, 1991) Subject for Certificates Major Subject Studies Minimum Number of Credits Mathematics Algebra 6 or 4 Geometry 6 or 4 Analysis 6 or 4 Probability & Statistics 4 or 2 Computer 4 or 2 TOTAL 20 Science Physics 4 Chemistry 4 Biology 4 Geology 4 PH/CH/BI/GE Experiment† 4 TOTAL 20 Agriculture Agriculture-related Subj 16 Career Guidance 4 TOTAL 20 Technology Technology-related Subj 16 Career Guidance 4 TOTAL 20 Career Guidance Career Guidance 4 Tech of Career Guidance 10 Mgmt of Career Guidance 6 TOTAL 20 † Includes computer use. SOURCE: Educational Personnel Certification Law (revised April 2, 1991). Colleges and Universities," "Standards for the Establishment of Graduate Schools," "Standards for the Establishment of Junior Colleges,'' and "Standards for the Establishment of Technical Colleges." There is no certification system for teachers of higher institutions. SCHOOL CURRICULA FOR THE PROSPECTIVE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CAREER STUDENTS Current and Upcoming School Intended Curricula The Japanese course of study, or national teaching guidelines, is determined by the MOE. The curriculum intended by the national government is revised about every 10 years (see Table 6) in a systematic, 5-step process: Request to Curriculum Council (CC) by Education Minister CC reports to Minister MOE revises Course of Study Course of Study implemented into schools Begin appraisals to prepare for next revision Total weekly class hours for grades 1-12 for recent years are shown in Table 7. Contrary to popular belief, Japanese yearly class hours are no longer than most of the other countries of Europe and North America, as shown in Table 7. Although yearly school days are 220 to 240, it does not mean that class hours are longer. Now that Japan has started to implement a plan for a 5-day school week, Japanese school days will be reduced to around 180, if the plan is completed. Tables 8-11 show current and upcoming curricula of elementary, lower, and upper secondary schools of mathematics and science. School Textbooks: Mathematics and Science Japanese textbooks are compiled based on the course of study determined and approved by the Ministry of Education. The use of authorized textbooks is mandatory at all school levels. All textbooks are pre-
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FIGURE 2 Females as percentage of total EC labor force. industry considers that the lack of qualified people represents a major obstacle to full exploitation of new technologies. Of the working population in Europe, one worker in three is female, 38.4 percent. In the UK the figure is even higher, above 40 percent. Forty-three percent of married women are members of the working population (see Figure 2). In most countries there is only a small percentage of women in the engineering and technological areas (IRDAC Opinion). Typical European Science Foundation projects include training for women in micro-electronics and technical skills in the building industry, and in accountancy training. Spain, Portugal, and Greece have been very successful in attracting funds from the European Science Foundation. WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY The underrepresentation of women in some areas of science education is an unacceptable waste of intellectual and economic resources. A gap still exists in 1993, but its closure is a major educational challenge. ''If I were a king," wrote Madame du Chatelet in the eighteenth century, "I would redress an abuse which cuts back half of mankind. I would have women participate in all human rights, especially those of the mind." With a few notable exceptions, women have played a secondary role to men in the world of scientific discovery. Technological subjects at the higher education level have the lowest proportion of women students compared to any other field of study. Figures suggest that a disproportionately low number of girls take science and technology options in school. There are more girls than boys in secondary education in the UK, Belgium, France, Ireland, Germany, and Luxembourg. Only after A Levels, or the equivalent, and above the age of 20, do women become the minority. At the age of 24, there are twice as many boys as girls still in education. There are great differences between men and women in some disciplines at further educational levels as well (see Figure 3). It is apparent that in most European countries, boys and girls still go down very different paths when it comes to preparing for a future career. The demographic changes of an aging population, and a dramatic fall in young people entering the labor market, will mean that women will be of increasing importance as a force of labor. It is predicted that in the year 2000, 44 percent of the labor force will be women. It is a belief that it will be necessary to eliminate explicit and implicit discrimination against women and recognize and provide for the particular problems facing women returning to work. The European Science Foundation and the Equal Opportunities Commission are encouraging women to go into traditional male occupations and new technologies. The Women in Technology in the European Community (WITNEC)-UETP was established in 1988 to try to address educational and training issues. It is a network of partners working for the motivation, development, and support of women in science, technology, and enterprise. WITNEC partners include representatives from industry and enterprise, promoters who are all interested in the formulation, orientation,
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FIGURE 3 Education in Europe. and research on women in technology and are drawn from all the EC and EFTA member states. WITNEC seeks to publicize educational programs aimed at increasing and diversifying the range of subject choices available to girls and to facilitate the entry of young adults into career paths and jobs in the field of information technology, electronics, and other technology-related industries. The WITNEC-UETP aims to: generate a network of universities, enterprises, and other organizations committed to increasing the number of girls and women taking up studies, careers, and autonomous activities in advanced technological fields across the EC and EFTA states; assist women studying and working in technological fields to surmount barriers that interfere with their entering into the labor market and support their technological career development; promote and support research concerning problems in this field and their solutions and to disseminate the results; publicize problems, strategies, and methods already found for dealing with them, especially within the overall COMETT network; generate action programs and pilot new initiatives of a general or specific character; encourage women undertaking technological careers to contribute to overcoming reluctance to employing women and at the same time promote information and experience exchanges between universities and enterprises; improve women's foreign language and interpersonal skills; take women with basic math and scientific knowledge, often in low-level jobs, through programs to the point where they could enter vocational education courses and ultimately higher level courses; offer knowledge and skill development in technological fields to women without any previous technological background via a program of
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evaluation of their skills and characteristics, and offer tools to facilitate this; contribute to the creation of a favorable learning environment for women; and test the content and procedure of existing resources on the theme "girls and women in science technology and enterprise," by collecting and exchanging information on research, statistics, policies, and action projects. ADVANCING EUROPEAN COOPERATION European Science Foundation Without doubt there is ample evidence of demand for a stronger scientific and technological workforce. How can this be supplied, and what part will research play in this educational process? By networking the existing scientific and technological workforce, one progresses toward a stronger Europe. Umberto Columbo, President of the European Science Foundation (ESF), has stated: "In difficult times the advantages of resources sharing and international cooperation become all the more obvious. By these means each member organization can avoid unnecessary duplication, share common costs and equipment, pool ideas and talents in joint actions." The ESF was founded to promote excellent basic science in Europe. Its aim was to advance European cooperation in basic research by planning, launching, and, where appropriate, managing collaborative research programs that help its member organizations (research councils and academies) to achieve their own aims and objectives. It aimed to promote mobility to build scientific communities on a European scale in specific fields and to enhance scientific competence in Europe. The success of the ESF in bringing together the natural and social sciences has been impressive, particularly in those areas—such as the study of environmental matters—where scientific research is vital in providing adequate and accurate evidence to underpin economic and political decisions affecting the world's population. In line with the many challenging changes that have taken place in the wider Europe of the last few years, and continue to take place, the nature of ESF support for basic science has changed and, perhaps, become responsive to the demands of scientists in the Europe that is now taking shape. There is a plethora of European and American programs of scientific meetings that have varied philosophies, aims, and organizational patterns. The aims and philosophies of some of these programs are often not sufficiently recognized. At its meeting in Oslo in June 1989, the Executive Council of the ESF decided to promote a continuing program of research conferences in Europe. A proposal has been submitted to the Executive Council from the presidents of the science organizations of the Federal Republic of Germany. Research Conferences The concept of research conferences is best exemplified by the well-known U.S. Gordon research conferences that have evolved over 60 years into a powerful instrument in U.S. research activities in chemistry and some related disciplines. These conferences were initiated in the late 1920s by Dr. Neil E. Gordon of Johns Hopkins, who was aware of the many problems and difficulties in establishing good direct communications between scientists working in particular areas, and sometimes in different disciplines of science. He proposed that these research conferences be held in secluded locations, the groups small but of a highly-qualified character, the discussions informal and off-the-record, and the specification of the scientific subject at the frontier of knowledge. Presently, there are some 130 Gordon conferences per year attended by about 15,000 scientists from countries all around the world. European Research Conferences A shared scientific understanding leading naturally to scientific communications, cooperation, and exchange has in the past provided an important bridge between European nations. This bridge has often been built many years ahead of other economic and political boundaries. The exchange of ideas and knowledge has contributed to the historical process of creating a more coherent European identity. More specifically, such scientific interchanges will speed up the pace of scientific discoveries and contribute to a more rational use of scarce resources, human effort, talent, and money.
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The European research conferences have two aims of equal importance: The scientific need to provide a framework for the scientific debate that is the essential component of truly innovative research, the result of the collision of ideas that often occurs in scientific argument. The need to build a sense of Europe-wide identity, especially among young researchers—not Europe-against-the-world but European rather than the narrow nationalistic view. These conferences will give the young researchers an opportunity to meet the established leaders in their fields, as well as colleagues of their own generation from all over Europe and the world. The ESF believes that these conferences will offer a stimulating environment for scientific argument and an opportunity for the young researchers. These conferences were not to be kept as purely for academe. It was hoped that they would attract researchers from industry, as well as researchers in particular from Central and Eastern European countries. An emphasis was, of course, also put on the hope that American scientists would be interested in these conferences, as over the years the Americans have generously invited European scientists to the U.S. Gordon research conferences. The foundation has proposed that their program of European research conferences cover all scientific disciplines, and, in due course, expand the conferences into the social sciences and humanities. This direction of expansion is quite a challenge as these research conferences have evolved more in the natural sciences. Program of EUROSCO The European research conference (EUROSCO) program consists of a series of scientific discussion meetings. Each series is devoted to the same general subject and normally takes place about every other year. The core activity at such research conferences is based on invited lectures by leading scientists in the field, followed by extensive discussion. The conferences are held in carefully-selected locations conducive to facilitating the interaction of participants over a five-day period. In order to encourage speakers to present their latest results and ideas, no written papers are requested and there are no conference proceedings. To facilitate participants associating freely and establishing new professional contacts that often lead to new collaborative research, the number of participants is restricted, with an upper limit of 100. In addition to five hours per day of formal lectures and discussion poster sessions, round-table discussions or groups are often arranged in the evening. A plenary session is normally held toward the end of the conference, in which an attempt is made to assess the scientific value of the meeting and also to discuss the scientific orientation of the next two conferences in the series or if the conference line is to be continued. This procedure results in the selection of topics for the conferences to be recommended, or within the context of the conferences themselves, and then sent to the ESF, which makes the formal decision whether to proceed or not. At the plenary session, the vice-chairperson for the next conference, and thus the chairperson for the conference after that, is also recommended. The conference chairman and the organizing committee are responsible only for the scientific input. The management of the conference is under the umbrella of the ESF office. At present the European research conferences are not self-supporting and are funded by the EC. The Gordon conferences are self-supporting through a nonprofit organization incorporated in New Hampshire as a voluntary corporation for scientific purposes. There are other meetings besides the Gordon conferences that have very definite style, for example the NATO meetings. Other Science Programs The NATO Science Program The NATO Science Program was established in 1958 in recognition of the crucial role of science and technology in maintaining the economic, political, and military strength of the Atlantic community. Together with the projects designed to enhance the quality of life undertaken by the committee on the challenges of modern society, it forms what is sometimes referred to as the "third dimension" of the North Atlantic alliance, the non-military dimension concerned with the enhancement of contact between member nations in the areas of science and technology, culture, and the problems of modern society. All participants are expected to play an active role
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at the meeting, and they are invited by their contributions to research and the potential response of the meeting. Jacques Monod Conferences The Life Sciences Department of CNRS (Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique) organizes a series of 10 conferences per year called the Jacques Monod conferences. The topics chosen are usually recent progress obtained in the different domains of fundamental biology and its applications in biotechnology, health, agronomy, and their associated industries. The total number of people attending these conferences is restricted to a maximum of 60-65. The objective is to offer those attending the opportunity and time for in-depth discussions with all their colleagues in order to facilitate organizing collaborations between teams and laboratories from different countries. Presentations must be recent unpublished work or work in the process of being published. The CIBA Conferences The aim of the CIBA Conference Foundation in holding conferences is to foster international cooperation. The most important consideration is scientific quality. Eight or nine conferences are held each year, and twenty to thirty participants, all of whom must be active in the field, are invited. Topics may be proposed by the CIBA Foundation itself, or by others, and are then filtered through the international peer review system. A recent evaluation of the conferences by the CIBA Foundation showed that the publication of the conference papers appeared to have an impact in the wider scientific community in that they are cited early, frequently, and for a long period of time. Also in Europe, there is a EUCHEM program in chemistry, which is now being run under the auspices of the ESF. EuroNet conferences in engineering science, which have a long tradition, are also run through the Foundation secretariat. EMBO research workshops have similar characteristics to the EUCHEM program, with the advantage of a more solid funding. NETWORKS Coupled with Euroconferences are the many network schemes that are currently in vogue in Europe. The idea behind networks is simple but fundamental. All over Europe there are scientists and scholars active in the same field of research and addressing the same kind of scientific questions, all with their own projects and facilities. Networks aim to bring these researchers together by offering them a platform where they can discuss their activities and develop plans for future collaborations. The main ideas of the networks and conferences are to foster mutual awareness, to promote mobility in building scientific communities on a European scale, and to facilitate interdisciplinary research. ESF Networks ESF Networks have the following characteristics: Scientific topics and activities are proposed "bottom up" by groups of active scientists. Major decisions about the scientific orientation of the networks are made by the coordination committee for that network, composed of the leading scientists involved. The scientists also take a leading role in the management and administration of each network, although support from the ESF office is sometimes available. The topics selected for networks (chosen on the basis of originality and excellence) are usually at a critical stage at which a significant step forward can be achieved through European collaboration. Inter-disciplinarity is also an important feature in many networks. Member organizations of the Foundation and the ESF standing committees can influence the direction of the network scheme in two ways: first, by encouraging scientists to present proposals in particular topics, and second, by advising the chairmen of the standing committees about particular proposals.
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Networks operate for a period of three years with a total budget in the range of five hundred to eight hundred thousand FF. The core activity is usually a series of three or four workshops for twenty to thirty persons. Other activities may include smaller working meetings on individual subtopics of the network, exchanges for both senior and younger scientists, planning of joint research activities, publications, periodic newsletters to inform the relevant scientific community, and preparation of research inventories and databases. Every network is, on completion, evaluated by a group of independent experts appointed by the Network Committee. The Human Capital and Mobility Program The Human Capital and Mobility Program covers all scientific and technological sectors such as mathematics and information science, physics, chemistry, life science, engineering, earth science, and the environment. The program also covers areas of social and human sciences likely to improve European competitiveness and bring about sustainable economic development in fields such as economic and management sciences, environmental economics, and in the interconnections between science, technology, and society, and to deal with the general public's understanding and acceptance of science and technology. There are four main activities carried out under the program: Fellowships. Networks. Scientific and technical cooperation networks are being created and developed across Europe, paying special attention to the needs of the less favored regions. This activity aspires to develop research networks linking several teams or laboratories whose capacity is complementary. These links will boost the effects of the European Community's research programs in specific areas (see Figure 4). Large-Scale Facilities. Euroconferences. The organization of a series of high-level meetings at the cutting edge of scientific and technical knowledge is intended to strengthen the cohesion of the EC by giving young researchers the chance to come into contact with and benefit from high levels of expertise in specific science and technology areas (see Figure 5). The overall participation in the Human Capital and Mobility Program is impressive. Statistics on the 1992 program are given in Figure 6. REFERENCES Colombo, U. 1993. European Science Foundation Communication, March 1993. Holbrook, J.B. 1992. Project 2000+. Towards Science and Technology Education for All—A Basic Human Need? Science International Newsletter, September-December 1992, p.45. Husén, T. (ed), A. Tuijnman, and W.D. Halls. Schooling in Modern European Society. A report of the Academia Europa. Pergamon Press. IRDAC Opinion. Industrial Research and Development Advisory Committee of the Commission of the European Communities. Skills Shortages in Europe. Women in Technology in the European Community University Enterprise Training Partnership, p. 10-11.
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FIGURE 4 Networks 1992: participating countries. FIGURE 5 Euroconferences 1992: participating countries.
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FIGURE 6 Human Capital and Mobility 1992: overall participation.
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Utilizing Points of Intervention: A Critique Pamela Ebert Flattau Over the past two days we have explored the concept of a career in science and technology (S&T), those factors thought to influence an individual's decision to enter a career, and key career stages. We identified a number of programs aimed at promoting S&T careers. However, it is clear from the studies presented at this conference that more fundamental information is needed about the development of the S&T career before fully effective human resource policies and programs can be designed. We explored the possibility that statistical databases maintained in a number of countries would be useful for understanding S&T career patterns. After all, most countries with a serious commitment to S&T support the collection of statistics about the S&T workforce. We found, however, that available data sets are generally more useful for tracking changes in the size and composition of the labor force than for documenting the factors that influence the development of S&T careers. That is, these data sets tell us about the movement of individuals from job to job but little about the determinants of career change—such as problems of skill obsolescence or changes in career goals. Changes will be needed, therefore, in national and international data collection practices to provide information about S&T careers. That is, data are needed that go beyond the question: Have we been successful in increasing the size of the S&T workforce? to answer the question: Have our programs and policies been successful in recruiting talented individuals into S&T and launching them into productive careers? Introducing changes in national data collection efforts to monitor S&T careers is, however, a serious undertaking that merits considerable thought and careful attention to issues of design. Consider, for example, that quantitative experts at this conference have described many factors involved in constructing national and international data sets that simply track the number of individuals entering or leaving the pool of workers in S&T! Furthermore, as John Moore reminded us yesterday, coupled with econometric models, labor force statistics in most countries have served human resource policies quite well over the years. Thus, there is a kind of inertia inherent in the extension of existing statistical systems to include career tracking due to the success of their past performance in monitoring the S&T labor force. The subject of this conference springs, however, from a growing concern within the science community that a career in S&T has become less attractive to young people than in the past despite government efforts to foster interest in this area. Given the limitations of current data sets, how are we to persuade national leaders to invest the resources that are needed to monitor S&T careers? A first step is to identify the types of information that should be collected, and three areas suggest themselves:
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Career exploration and career planning as it occurs in educational settings The nature of the transition from school to work Career advancement in the work setting CAREER EXPLORATION AND PLANNING IN EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS Many nations have developed strategies to recruit individuals into S&T careers by focusing on improvements in the educational environment. Emphasis has been given to the development of new curricula, to teacher preparation, and to increased stipend support for talented individuals to pursue advanced studies in S&T. Dr. Ishizaka has described for us the significant changes Japan has introduced in its education system in recent years. These reforms address the preparation of teachers and curriculum for the universal preparation of Japanese students at the primary and secondary school levels. The success of educational reforms in science and mathematics is often measured in terms of changes in overall student performance on standardized mathematics and science tests, especially in the international arena (e.g., relative ratings in the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, or IEA). According to Dr. Ishizaka, Japan is also monitoring the success of their educational reforms based on changes in these performance measures. But the ultimate goal of many of these reforms is to direct individuals—especially talented individuals—into S&T careers. To monitor progress toward that goal measures other than performance measures are needed. Retention studies are suggested that monitor the number of students at various points along the education path so that conclusions may be drawn about the efficacy of educational reforms relative to the fraction of individuals making the transition from one stage of the educational process to the next. While studies that monitor the number of individuals in the education path are useful and important, they are often predicated on the belief that career development is a linear process and that changes in the educational environment will contribute to the flow of individuals through the system. In fact, as Dr. Miller told us earlier in this meeting, career planning is far more dynamic than many linear models predict and, furthermore, education is but one factor (albeit a critical factor) in the evolution of the S&T career. Longitudinal studies are also needed to deepen our understanding of the S&T career process within the context of the education system. Such studies have the potential of documenting critical phases of career development and of suggesting intervention strategies within the education system that might assure the recruitment and retention of qualified individuals into S&T. A number of speakers at this meeting, such as Paul Baltes, Yu Xie, Jon Miller, and Thomas Whiston, have identified some aspects of career exploration and career planning that might be examined through longitudinal analyses: Goal setting: levels of aspiration, timing of career decisions, students' understanding of occupations, students' understanding of career options Attitudes: toward S&T, toward mathematics and science studies, toward the life of scientists Achievement or performance: on standardized tests in science and mathematics, differences between students who aspire to S&T careers and those who aspire to other vocations Parental expectations and parental education Gender differences in the exploration of S&T career options Environmental variables Such studies might be of special interest to analysts in Japan as they head toward further educational reforms that will emphasize "individualization/ personalization" of S&T studies at the secondary school level. SCHOOL-TO-WORK TRANSITIONS Another promising area for study is the stage of "school-to-work transitions." Dr. Donnelly has offered an especially useful example of an intervention activity that seems to have been designed with specific sensitivity to a critical stage of career development: the
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time when young investigators have completed their advanced training and may need assistance in establishing themselves among the larger research community. The European Research Conference, which Dr. Donnelly described, aims to: (1) provide a framework for scientific debate, and (2) build a sense of European—wide identity, especially among young researchers. Carefully designed career outcomes studies would be especially useful in documenting the success of this program. A properly designed outcome study might focus on such questions as: What are the near-term and long-term effects of the Euroconference in launching young investigators into productive careers? Did the individual take the next step in the career process as a result of this program? Did this program enhance the level of productivity of the worker? Coupled with longitudinal studies of career development, program outcome studies have the potential of making significant contributions to the ways in which educators, policymakers, and planners will approach the development of intervention strategies in the coming years—whether through curricular reform or through informal strategies like those described by Dr. Donnelly. CAREER STAGES IN THE WORK SETTING Earlier in the meeting, Dr. Jaworski observed that many corporations have attempted to define the career path of employees and have introduced methods to sustain the professional competency of their staffs. Many companies will allow highly trained scientists, for example, to have a certain amount of free time for their own research while conducting research activities contributing to corporate goals. In some industries, ''dual ladder" programs have been developed with a scientific advancement component and a managerial advancement component. While no industry uses all these—or other—techniques, almost all companies use some combination of these approaches. The paucity of data on adult career development in S&T in work organizations is striking. Few attempts have been made to evaluate the effects of programs such as those described by Dr. Jaworski either on the employee's career goals or on those of the organization. Specialized studies that emphasize mid- to late-career development in S&T are sorely needed. Such information would be especially useful for identifying exemplary programs that sustain research and development skills and programs that successfully facilitate transition through critical stages of work-to-retirement transitions. CONCLUSION At the outset of the conference, Richard Pearson reminded us that there are many aspects of the concept of a career that must be addressed before statistical systems can be designed to track the development of S&T careers. This includes the need for a common definition of an S&T career, some understanding of the key determinants of a career, and key transition stages that make tracking possible. Fortunately, sufficient groundwork has been laid by the social and behavioral science communities to begin planning for the systematic collection of information about the development of the S&T career, although much work remains before we have sorted through competing theoretical perspectives to determine which offer more promise for informing human resource policy and planning activities. This conference has provided us with an important opportunity to consider what types of information might be collected in the coming years.
Representative terms from entire chapter: