Index

A

Abortion

adolescents and, 82

life span approach, 294

safety, 97, 110-1

See also Pregnancy

Accidents. See Injuries

Acute respiratory infection (ARI)

mortality in children from, 290

See also Children;

Respiratory damage

Adolescence 13, 82

pregnancy-related mortality, 292

sexually transmitted diseases, 250

See also Children

African Census Program, 285

See also Demographic data

African trypanosomiasis, 192, 200-1, 216-9

See also Tropical infectious diseases

Agriculture

chemicals, 191

commercial and nutrition, 56

organic dusts, 192

Sub-Saharan economy and, 183

women in, 184-5

See also Chemicals;

Formal (economic) sector;

Informal (economic) sector

Agrochemicals. See Chemicals

AIDS. See HIV/AIDS

Air pollution

indoor, 162

See also Occupational and environmental health

Alcohol dependence, 146

gender violence and, 43

violent death and, 178

See also Injuries;

Mental health

Alzheimer's disease. See Cognitive development

Anemia. See Iron-deficiency anemia

Antenatal care. See Pregnancy

Autopsy. See Vital registration systems

B

Bacteria. See Biologic agents;

Tropical infectious diseases

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

malnutrition and reproduction, 73

nutritional measures during pregnancy and lactation, 59

Battering. See Gender violence

Benin

nutrition and seasonality in, 57

Bilharziasis. See Schistosomiasis

Biologic agents, 191-2

See also Tropical infectious diseases

Birthweight

intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and, 70

malaria and, 211

nutrition, 61-4

sexually transmitted diseases, 246

See also Micronutrient deficiencies;

Pregnancy

Bladder cancer, 162

See also Cancers

Blindness. See Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis

Blood flukes. See Schistosomiasis



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IN HER LIFETIME: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa Index A Abortion adolescents and, 82 life span approach, 294 safety, 97, 110-1 See also Pregnancy Accidents. See Injuries Acute respiratory infection (ARI) mortality in children from, 290 See also Children; Respiratory damage Adolescence 13, 82 pregnancy-related mortality, 292 sexually transmitted diseases, 250 See also Children African Census Program, 285 See also Demographic data African trypanosomiasis, 192, 200-1, 216-9 See also Tropical infectious diseases Agriculture chemicals, 191 commercial and nutrition, 56 organic dusts, 192 Sub-Saharan economy and, 183 women in, 184-5 See also Chemicals; Formal (economic) sector; Informal (economic) sector Agrochemicals. See Chemicals AIDS. See HIV/AIDS Air pollution indoor, 162 See also Occupational and environmental health Alcohol dependence, 146 gender violence and, 43 violent death and, 178 See also Injuries; Mental health Alzheimer's disease. See Cognitive development Anemia. See Iron-deficiency anemia Antenatal care. See Pregnancy Autopsy. See Vital registration systems B Bacteria. See Biologic agents; Tropical infectious diseases Basal metabolic rate (BMR) malnutrition and reproduction, 73 nutritional measures during pregnancy and lactation, 59 Battering. See Gender violence Benin nutrition and seasonality in, 57 Bilharziasis. See Schistosomiasis Biologic agents, 191-2 See also Tropical infectious diseases Birthweight intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and, 70 malaria and, 211 nutrition, 61-4 sexually transmitted diseases, 246 See also Micronutrient deficiencies; Pregnancy Bladder cancer, 162 See also Cancers Blindness. See Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis Blood flukes. See Schistosomiasis

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IN HER LIFETIME: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa Body mass index (BMI) by country, 65-6 gender differences and, 68 nutrition and, 63 obesity and, 157 physical capabilities and, 74 seasonality, 57 Botswana breastfeeding in, 111 contraceptive use in, 109 schizophrenia in, 142 traditional medicine, 98 Breast cancer, 160, 163 See also Cancers Breastfeeding, 80 diet during, 57, 112 lactation and, 111-3 onchocerciasis and, 228 See also Pregnancy Bride price. See Marriage Brucella, 192 See also Agriculture Burkina Faso African trypanosomiasis, 217 labor in, 187 onchocerciasis in, 228 surveys, 285 Burns, 175-6 See also Injuries Burundi breastfeeding in, 111 family planning in, 107-8 C Cameroon abortion in, 110 family planning in, 108 hypertension, 156 sexually transmitted diseases, 255 smoking in, 155, 165 Cancers gender and mortality, 291 life span approach, 294 obesity and, 157, 159-60 See also Bladder cancer; Breast cancer; Cervical cancer; Choriocarcinoma; Colorectal cancers; Kaposi's sarcoma; Leukemia and lymphoma; Liver cancer; Lung cancers; Ovarian cancer; Skin cancers; Uterine cancer Cape Verde gender and mortality, 291 Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 152-9, 163-4 cardiomyopathies, 159 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 162-3, 195 coronary artery disease, 153 gender and mortality, 291 hypertension, 155-7, 200 rheumatic heart disease, 159, 165, 200 See also Cerebrovascular diseases, Occupational and environmental health; Tropical infectious diseases CARE gender and diet, 68 See also Nutrition Carnegie Foundation, 3 See also Safe Motherhood Initiative CATEGO. See Psychiatric tests CCInfo-Disc. See Occupational and environmental health; Research needs Census and surveys 1980s round, 285 vital statistics, 284 See also Demographic data Central African Republic leishmaniasis and leprosy, 229 sexually transmitted diseases, 255 Central nervous system (CNS) African trypanosomiasis, 216-7 See also Nervous system disorders Cerebrovascular diseases, 154, 157 oral contraceptives and, 123-4, 127-8 See also Cardiovascular diseases; Contraceptives Cervical cancer, 161, 163, 246-7 See also Cancers Chad leishmaniasis and leprosy, 229 Chancroid, 246, 252 See also HIV/AIDS; Sexually transmitted diseases Chemicals agrochemicals, 197 occupational health, 189, 191, 194 poisoning, 175-6 Child labor. See Children Childbearing. See Pregnancy Children African trypanosomiasis, 216-7 dracunculiasis in, 221 education, 32-3, 72 fostering, 39 health and gender, 12-3, 82 laborers, 187, 190 leishmaniasis and leprosy in, 229 malaria, 208 mortality rates, 1 nutritional status by gender, 69 onchocerciasis, 226 schistosomiasis, 213-4 sexual abuse and, 250

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IN HER LIFETIME: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa trachoma, 219-20 See also Adolescence; Tropical infectious diseases Chlamydia pregnancy and, 246 See also Pelvic inflammatory disease Cholesterol comparative studies needed, 165 See also Nutrition Choriocarcinoma cancer of, 160-1 gender and mortality, 290 See also Cancers Chronic energy deficiency (CED), 63-4 See also Nutrition Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). See Cardiovascular diseases Cognitive development dementia, 129 malnutrition and, 72 nervous system disorders and, 123-4 Collagen diseases, 123-4, 128-9 See also Nervous system disorders Colonial experience and female workers, 185 Colorectal cancers, 161 See also Cancers Communicable diseases. See Tropical infectious diseases Congo adolescent abortions and, 82 hypertension, 156 Contraceptives contraceptive prevalence surveys (CPS), 285 family planning, 109 oral, 123-4, 127-8 sexually transmitted diseases, 251 See also Cerebrovascular diseases; Family planning Coronary artery disease (CAD). See Cardiovascular diseases Côte d'Ivoire AIDS mortality in, 255 morbidity estimates, 293 D Demographic and health surveys (DHS), 82 family planning and, 107 mortality rates, 285 See also Vital registration systems Demographic data, 283-95 passim population growth, 1 See also African Census Program; Demographic and health surveys Dementia. See Cognitive development; Nervous system disorders Demyelinating diseases, 123-4, 128 See also Nervous system disorders Depression. See Mental health Diabetes mellitus (DM), 157-8, 163 infectious diseases, 200 research needs, 165 and stress, 195 See also Tropical infectious diseases Diarrhea childhood mortality, 290 See also Children; Tropical infectious diseases Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), 200 African trypanosomiasis, 216 applications in report, 293 leishmaniasis and leprosy, 229 malaria in children, 208 morbidity and, 293, 294-5 onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, 225, 228 sexually transmitted diseases, 242 trachoma, 219-20 tropical infectious diseases, 234 Domestic abuse. See Gender violence; Vital registration systems Domestic sector. See Informal (economic) sector Dracunculiasis, 200, 220-5 See also Tropical infectious diseases Drowning, 175-6 See also Injuries DSM. See Mental health; Psychiatric tests E Economic adjustment programs, 186, chapter 2 passim See also Agriculture; Formal (economic) sector; Informal (economic) sector; World Bank Elephantiasis. See Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis Environment. See Occupational and environmental health Epidemiologic catchment area (ECA). See Mental health; Psychiatric tests Epilepsies, 123-4, 128, 130 See also Nervous system disorders Ergonomic stress. See Stress Ethiopia cerebrovascular diseases and chronic energy deficiency, 63 family planning in, 108, gender and mortality, 286, 292 leishmaniasis and leprosy, 229 motor vehicle injuries, 173-4 obesity in, 64 oral contraceptives, 127 traditional medicine, 46 Eysenick Personality Inventory. See Mental health; Psychiatric tests

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IN HER LIFETIME: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa F Family planning, 32, 80, 107-13 oral contraceptives, 158-9 sexually transmitted diseases and, 249, 261 See also Abortion; Contraceptives Female genital mutilations (FGM), 81, 100-6 abortion, 110 domestic abuse, 179 onchocerciasis, 227 schistosomiasis, 214 Falls, 175-7 See also Injuries Fertility. See Pelvic inflammatory disease; Pregnancy Food and Agriculture Organization. See World Health Organization Food and Drug Administration African trypanosomiasis, 216 Formal (economic) sector manufacturing in rural areas, 194 women in, 186 See also Agriculture; Informal (economic) sector G Gabon leishmaniasis and leprosy, 229 suicides in, 178 Gambia, The breastfeeding in, 113 infertility in, 248-9 leishmaniasis and leprosy, 229 malaria, 208, 210 nutrition, 56, 58-9, 73-4 population-based data from, 84 schistosomiasis in, 214 surveys, 285 Gender violence, 173 domestic abuse, 44, 169 health policy, 177-80, 250 pregnancy and mortality, 86, 90 rape, 43, 179, 260 work and, 191 See also Injuries General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), 147 See also Mental health Genital discharge syndrome, 244, 273-5 See also Sexually transmitted diseases Genital herpes industrialized nations, 252 Kaposi's sarcoma and, 244 pregnancy and, 246 See also Sexually transmitted diseases Genital lesions. See Chancroid; Genital herpes; Sexually transmitted diseases; Syphilis Geriatrics sexually transmitted diseases, 251 Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). See Diabetes mellitus Ghana abortion in, 111 cerebrovascular diseases, 127 hypertension, 156 menopause, 113 morbidity estimates, 293 research needs, 130 schizophrenia in, 142 smoking, 155 surveys, 285 traditional medicine, 98 Gishiri cuts. See Traditional medicine Global burden of disease (GBD), 200, 230 See also Disability-adjusted life years; World Bank; World Health Organization Gonorrhea, 253 pregnancy and, 246 See also Sexually transmitted diseases A Guide to Women of Kenya on Rape and the Legal Process, 43 See also Gender violence; Kenya; Marriage Guinea worm disease. See DracunculiasisH Headache syndromes, 123-4, 126 See also Nervous system disorders Health services access, 28-31, 37, 148, 260 education, 32-5 gender-related summary, 7-24 See also Cardiovascular diseases; Injuries; Mental health; Nutrition; Occupational and environmental health; Pregnancy; Sexually transmitted diseases; Tropical infectious diseases Hepatitis. See Biologic agents; Tropical infectious diseases Herpes virus. See Genital herpes HIV/AIDS asymptomatic nature, 243-4 breast feeding, 80 children, 246, 246-9, 250 by country (table), 278 economic impact of, 255 female legal status, 37 gender and, 242-3, 262, 292 geriatrics and, 251 life span approach, 32, 294 malaria and, 211-2 morbidity and mortality, 252-5 research, 231, 234 Homicides and suicides, 172

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IN HER LIFETIME: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa gender differences, 177-8 See also Injuries Hookworm. See Dracunculiasis Household injuries, 169 See also Injuries Human papillomavirus. See Cervical cancer Human Development Index (HDI), 26-7 See also United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report (HDR), 26 See also United Nations Development Programme Hypertension. See Cardiovascular diseases I ICD. See International Classification of Diseases Immunization of children epilepsies and, 128 See also Children Income, family, 186-7 Infectious diseases. See Tropical infectious diseases Informal (economic) sector women in, 184-5, 187 See also Agriculture; Formal (economic) sector; Occupational and environmental health Injuries by age, 180 gender differences, 173, 176 occupational injuries, 188 public health and, 169-71 rehabilitation, 195-6 See also Alcohol dependence; Burns; Drowning; Gender violence; Health services; Motor vehicle injuries; Occupational and environmental health Institute of Medicine, 2-3 International Classification of Diseases (ICD), 85 International Development Research Center (IDRC), 32 International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade gender and mortality, 291 See also Dracunculiasis, 223 International Food Policy Research Institute, 56 International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia (IPSS), 143, 149 See also Schizophrenia; World Health Organization Investing in Health disabilities, 293 See also World Bank Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), 66-7, 76 anemia, 64, 66, 74, 124-6 cognitive development, 72, 126 gender differences, 68 See also Nutrition Iron-deficiency anemia during pregnancy, 64, 66 gender differences, 54 maternal mortality and, 70, 96 schistosomiasis and, 213 See also Micronutrient deficiencies; Nutrition K Kaposi's sarcoma, 244 See also Cancers; HIV/AIDS Kenya abortion in, 82-3, 110-1 African trypanosomiasis, 217 air pollution in, 163 breastfeeding in, 113 cash-cropping and nutrition, 56 chronic energy deficiency, 63-4 contraceptive use in, 109, 127 education, 32 gender violence, 43, 178-9, 250 leishmaniasis and leprosy, 229 mental health in, 139, 141 motor vehicle injuries, 173-4 nutrition in, 58, 71, 73-4 pelvic inflammatory disease, 245 population-based data from, 84 See also Demographic data L Labor force. See Agriculture; Formal (economic) sector; Informal (economic) sector; Migrant labor Lactation. See Breastfeeding Lancet on disabilities, 293 Legal status land laws, 185 widows, 37 women, 38-9 See also Refugees; Widowhood Leishmaniasis and leprosy, 200-1, 228-30 See also Tropical infectious diseases Leukemia and lymphoma, 161, 163 See also Cancers Liberia adolescent abortions and, 82-3 gender violence in, 179 schistosomiasis in, 213 Life cycle. See Life span Life expectancy, 2, 288-90 See also Demographic data Life span cognition, 72 defined, 2-6 injuries, 173, 179 menopause, 83 morbidity/mortality, 81, 293-4

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IN HER LIFETIME: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa nervous system disorders, 123, 129 nutrition, 68-75 passim obstetric complications, 114 occupational and environmental health, 189-90, 193, 196 sexually transmitted diseases, 249 tropical infectious diseases, 235 utility of, 6, 12, 68 demographic data, 283, 285 Liver cancer, 162 See also Cancers Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS), 285 morbidity estimates, 293 See also Demographic data Lung cancers, 161 See also Cancers Lupus, 129 See also Nervous system disorders M Malaria, 192, 200, 205-6, 208-12 childhood mortality, 290-1 See also Tropical infectious diseases Malawi agriculture, 55-6 gender and mortality, 27-8, 288 sexually transmitted diseases, 247 traditional medicine, 98 Mali adolescent abortions and, 82-3 births in, 86 breastfeeding in, 111 gender and mortality, 27-8, 288, 291-2 schistosomiasis in, 214 Manufacturing. See Formal (economic) sector Marriage early, 43, 82 female genital mutilation, 104 mental health, 137 polygamy, 43 Maternal and child health (MCH) centers, 106 See also Pregnancy Maternal morbidity and mortality. See Pregnancy Mauritania nutrition, 62 Mauritius family planning in, 107-8 vital statistics in, 84, 284 Measles childhood mortality, 290-1 See also Children; Tropical infectious diseases Medical distance and female health care, 28-9 risk factors, 92-3 Menopause, 20, 113-4 mental health and, 137 See also Life span Mental health, 10 gender and, 136-7, 138-40, 144, 146-7 See also Psychiatric tests; Schizophrenia Micronutrient deficiencies, 64-7 passim environmental health, 197 gender and, 68 obstetric complications and, 114 schistosomiasis and, 213 See also Body mass index; Iodine deficiency disorder; Iron-deficiency anemia; Protein-energy malnutrition; Vitamin deficiency Midwives. See Traditional medicine Migraine. See Headache syndromes Migrant labor, 184-5 female-headed households, 195 Migratory diseases, 194 See also Tropical infectious diseases MONICA comparative study, 164 See also Demographic data; Research needs Morbidity and mortality. See HIV/AIDS; individual country names; Occupational and environmental health; Pregnancy; Tropical infectious diseases; Sexually transmitted diseases Motor vehicle injuries, 173-5 regional, 283 gender differences, 286-7 historical, 290 See also Injuries Mozambique iodine deficiency disorders, 126 quality of maternal care in, 107 sexually transmitted diseases, 41, 260 N National Research Council, 3 National Traditional Healers Association of Zimbabwe, 45 See also Traditional medicine; Zimbabwe Neoplastic disorders. See cancers Nervous system disorders, 10 See also Cerebrovascular diseases; Cognitive development; Collagen diseases; Demyelinating diseases; Epilepsies; Headache syndromes; Lupus; Toxic disorders Neurotoxicity. See Toxic disorders Niger at-home deliveries, 84 dracunculiasis in, 224 gender and diet, 68 Nigeria abortion in, 82-3, 110-1

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IN HER LIFETIME: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa anemia in pregnant women in, 66 births in, 86 cerebrovascular diseases, 127 demographic surveys, 285 dracunculiasis in, 221-5 family planning in, 108 gender and mortality, 286 headache syndromes, 126-7 homicides and suicides, 172, 178 injuries, 169, 171, 173-4, 176 malaria in children, 208 mental health, 138-44 nutrition in, 71, 98 obesity, 157 onchocerciasis, 226-7 postreproductive issues, 113-4 schistosomiasis in, 213-4 sexually transmitted diseases, 83 smoking in, 155 traditional medicine, 98 Noncommunicable diseases. See Cancers; Cardiovascular diseases; Diabetes mellitus Nutrition childbearing, 57-9, 72 comparative studies, 165 gender differences, 7 infants, 70 physical work and, 73-4 seasonal variations in, 57 stunting, 60, 70 traditional practices, 46 See also Chronic energy deficiency; Obesity; Protein-energy malnutrition O Obesity, 64 cardiovascular disorders, 157 research needs, 76, 165 See also Nutrition Obstetrics. See Pregnancy Occupational and environmental health, 11, 183-99 passim See also Agriculture; Chemicals; Formal (economic) sector; Informal (economic) sector; Injuries Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, 192, 200-1, 225-8 See also Tropical infectious diseases Oral Contraceptives. See Contraceptives; Family planning Orphanhood method mortality and, 284-5 See also Demographic data Outcomes study, 142-3 See also Mental health; World Health Organization Ovarian cancer, 160-1 See also Cancers P Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), 177 Passive smoke. See Smoking Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), 243-5, 251 fertility, 245 and morbidity, 252 research needs, 262 Petroleum industry, 183 Poisoning. See Chemicals; Injuries Polygamy. See Marriage Population. See Demographic data Pregnancy African trypanosomiasis, 218-9 age and, 45, 82, 115 antenatal care, 106-7 diet and, 57, 61-3 dracunculiasis during, 223 ectopic and pelvic inflammatory disease, 244-5 health services and, 106-7 life span approach, 2, 294 malaria during, 209-2 mental health and, 147-8 mortality, 7, 70, 80, 82-3, 86-7, 90-1, 94-7, 291-2 onchocerciasis and, 227-8 schistosomiasis and, 215 sexually transmitted diseases and, 261, 263 suicides and, 178 tropical infectious diseases, 231 work and, 190 See also Abortion; Birthweight Present state examination (PSE). See Mental health; Psychiatric tests Prevention of Maternal Mortality Network. See Safe Motherhood Initiative Prostitution, 187 See also Sexually transmitted diseases Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), 54, 59-60, 64, 74-5 diarrhea and, 71 gender differences and, 68 infant mortality and, 70 nervous system disorders, 123-4 pregnancy, 54 See also Nutrition Psychiatric tests Epidemiologic catchment area, 138 in medical settings, 144-7 Present State Examination, 137-8, 147 Schedule for the Assessment of Depressive Disorders, 141 Self-Reporting Questionnaire, 140 Puerperium. See Mental health; Pregnancy

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IN HER LIFETIME: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa Q Quality of life years (QUALY) research needs, 295 R Race violence, 177 See also Gender violence Rape. See Gender violence Refugees, 41 See also Legal status Rehabilitation. See Injuries Report on the World Nutrition Situation. See Nutrition; United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination/A System of National Accounts Reproduction. See Life span; Pregnancy Research needs, 20-1, 76, 149 cardiopulmonary diseases, 159, 164-5 demographic data, 83-5, 283, 295 ergonomic stress, 193 gender violence, 177 injuries, 175, 176, 180-1 life span approach, 292-4 mortality/morbidity, 22-3, 90, 116 nervous system disorders, 129-30 noncommunicable diseases, 152 occupational and environmental data, 184, 188, 196-7 schizophrenia, 142, 149 sexually transmitted diseases, 249, 253, 261-3 tropical infectious diseases, 205, 231-5 Respiratory damage, 195, 197 See also Acute respiratory infection Rheumatic heart disease (RHD). See Cardiovascular diseases Rwanda cash-cropping and nutrition, 56 gender violence in, 179 health care access, 29 HIV/AIDS in 246, 255, 292 S Safe Motherhood Conference. See United Nations Funds for Population Activities Safe Motherhood Initiative, 32, 93, 114, 116 Schedule for the Assessment of Depressive Disorders (SADD). See Mental health; Psychiatric tests; World Health Organization Schistosomiasis, 192, 200, 212-5 See also Tropical infectious diseases Schizophrenia, 142-3, 149 See also Mental health; Psychiatric tests Self-Reporting Questionnaire. See Psychiatric tests Senegal malnutrition and reproduction, 73 mental health in, 140 surveys, 285 Service sector. See Formal (economic) sector Sexual abuse against children, 250 See also Children Sexually transmitted diseases (STD), 7, 11, 81 blood transfusions, 96 in children, 13, 83, 250 female genital mutilation and, 104 gender differences and, 40, 242-3, 247-8, 260-1, 292 life span approach, 294 mental health, 138 migratory, 194, 259-60 mortality, 255 obstetrics and, 116-7, 243 prevalence by country, 254 stigma, 32 technology, 262 work and, 194, 242 See also Chlamydia; Genital discharge syndrome; Genital herpes; Gonorrhea; HIV/AIDS; Pelvic inflammatory disease; Syphilis; Trichomoniasis Sierra Leone female genital mutilation in, 101 gender and mortality, 291 Sisterhood method adult mortality, 284-5 maternal mortality and, 85 See also Research needs Skin cancers, 161 research needs, 165 See also Cancers Smoking, 154-5, 162 comparative studies of, 165 Social Security, 186 See also Formal (economic) sector Somalia gender violence in, 179 leishmaniasis and leprosy, 229 South Africa abortion in, 111 alcohol and suicide, 178 gender and mortality, 291 gender violence, 178 headache syndromes, 126-7 health care access, 29 hypertension, 156 injuries in, 165, 172, 176 obesity and, 157 race violence, 177 vital registration systems, 284

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IN HER LIFETIME: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), 200 and trachoma, 219 See also World Health Organization Spousal abuse. See Gender violence Stress, 189, 192-3, 197 diabetes and, 195 Stroke. See Cerebrovascular diseases Stunting. See Nutrition Sub-Saharan Africa defined, 5 See also individual country names Sudan dracunculiasis in, 224 female genital mutiliation in, 101 leishmaniasis and leprosy, 229 malaria and pregnancy, 210-1 mental health in, 140 schizophrenia in, 142 Sugar cane cash-cropping and nutrition, 56 See also Agriculture Swaziland traditional medicine in, 98 Syphilis, 243 by country, 276-7 gender and, 247 pregnancy and, 246, 252 See also Sexually transmitted diseases T Tanzania diabetes mellitus, 158 health care access, 29 iodine deficiency disorders, 126 malaria during pregnancy, 210 schistosomiasis in, 213 trachoma, 220 traditional medicine in, 98 Togo gender and mortality, 286 Toxic disorders, 123-5 toxoplasma, 192 research needs, 130 from waste, 189, 191 See also Agriculture; Chemicals; Nervous system disorders; Nutrition; Occupational and environmental health Trachoma, 200, 219-20 See also Tropical infectious diseases Traditional medicine, 32, 45-7 physiological questions, 80 traditional birth attendants, 47, 97-8 See also Nutrition Trichomoniasis pregnancy and, 246 See also Sexually transmitted diseases Tropical infectious diseases, 7, 11, 81 biological consequences, 206-7 gender differences, 201-5, 230-1, 291 See also African trypanosomiasis; Dracunculiasis; Female genital mutilations; Leishmaniasis and leprosy; Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis; Malaria; Measles; Schistosomiasis Tunisia gender and mortality, 286-8 U Uganda gender violence in, 179 leishmaniasis and leprosy, 229 malaria in, 212 mental health in, 140-1 UNICEF gender violence, 177-8 infant mortality, 70 United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination/A System of National Accounts (ACC/SCN), 59-60 iron-deficiency and, 66 research goals, 76 See also Iron-deficiency anemia; Research needs United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) dracunculiasis and, 223 poverty 36 See also Human Development Index; Human Development Report United Nations Funds for Population Activities Safe Motherhood Conference, 95, 114 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development 2 University College Hospital Mental health study, 144 See also Mental health; Nigeria Urban-rural bias gender and mortality, 290 health care availability and, 29 mental health, 136-7 nutrition, 57 Uterine cancer, 160-1 See also Cancer V Viruses. See Biologic agents; HIV/AIDS Vital registration systems, 284-6 See also Demographic and health surveys; Demographic data Vitamin deficiency, 67, 71, 74, 76

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IN HER LIFETIME: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa W War, 40-1 sexually transmitted diseases and, 260 Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project, 223 See also Dracunculiasis; Nigeria Widowhood economic adjustments and, 37, 45 and war, 38 Widowhood method adult mortality, 284-5 See also Demographic data World Bank gender and mortality, 290 health care access, 32, 36 life span, 2-3 mortality and, 26-7 Safe Motherhood Conference, 114 World Development Report 1993 (WDR), 26 DALYs, 293 World Fertility Surveys (WFS), 285 World Health Assembly dracunculiasis, 223-4 World Health Organization (WHO) African trypanosomiasis, 216-7 diet, 58, 112 gender and mental health, 141-9 injury data, 171-2 iron-deficiency anemia and, 64 leprosy, 228-9 maternal death statistics and, 85 Safe Motherhood Conference, 114, Worldwide Variation in Human Growth, 68 See also Micronutrient deficiencies Z Zaire adolescent abortions and, 82-3 African trypanosomiasis in, 216 chronic energy deficiency in, 64 gender and mortality, 286 HIV-infected infants, 246 iodine deficiency disorders, 126 nutrition and pregnancy in, 58-9, 73, 113 sexually transmitted diseases, 247 Zambia abortion in, 110-1 African trypanosomiasis, 217 health care access, 29 homicides and suicides, 172 Kaposi's sarcoma in, 244 sexually transmitted diseases in, 246, 247, 252 Zimbabwe abortion in, 110 births in, 86 chronic energy deficiency, 63-4 contraceptive use in, 109 HIV and morbidity, 246, 252 injuries, 172 iodine deficiency disorders, 67 maternal care, 70, 91, 107 mental health in, 138, 147-8 obesity in, 64 postreproductive diseases in, 114 traditional medicine, 98 schistosomiasis in, 213 skin cancers in, 161 Zinc deficiency morbidity and, 71 See also Micronutrient deficiencies