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2
Methodology

The Panel on Passenger Screening developed this report based on: (1) committee meetings and technical literature provided to the committee by the FAA and the National Research Council (NRC) staff, (2) presentations by outside experts who briefed the panel on specific passenger screening technologies and implementation and operational issues, and (3) a workshop on passenger screening during which several outside organizations presented their views and concerns. Panel members were also invited to meetings of the NRC Committee on Aviation Security, which oversaw this study, to hear presentations by experts on various aspects of passenger screening technologies, explosives detection systems, and security issues concerning both passengers and baggage. The panel membership included experts in human factors, risk perception and psychology, imaging science, electrical engineering, chemical detection, health effects of radiation, and legal issues.

PANEL MEETINGS

The panel conducted five meetings between February and September 1995 to gather information used in developing this report. In preparation for these meetings, the panelists received technical and nontechnical literature on various aspects of passenger screening technologies for their review and consideration. Information was provided by the FAA and by outside experts, who are listed in table 2-1.

WORKSHOP ON PASSENGER SCREENING

The panel held the Workshop on New Technologies for Passenger Screening to gain a broader perspective on health, privacy, comfort, and other concerns regarding passenger screening from organizations interested in air travel safety. The workshop was held on June 3, 1995, at the NRC Georgetown facilities in Washington, D.C. Panel members, FAA staff, and representatives of other organizations participated in the workshop (see table 2-2). These representatives also provided the panel with written comments contained in appendix B.

At the workshop, the panel members discussed passenger screening issues (particularly issues related to health and privacy) with representatives of professional associations and interest groups. The panel considered the contributions of workshop participants excellent and useful. However, screening technologies were discussed only in general, and the

TABLE 2-1  Speakers and Topics Presented to the Panel on Passenger Screening

Speaker

Affiliation

Topic

     

Douglas Smith

U.S. Customs Service

Technology for contraband detection

Art Janata

Pacific Northwest Laboratories

Chemical sensor options

Nicholas Virca

Nicolet Imaging Systems

Technology of the Secure 1000

Dale Murray

Sandia National Laboratories

Electromagnetic portal technology

Dan Issacharoff

Consultant

Risk analysis system used by El Al

Ray Smietan

U.S. Department of Justice

Department of Defense/Department

   

of Justice weapons detection program

James Fobes

FAA

FAA human factors program

Paul Jankowski

FAA

FAA research and development

Frank Fox

FAA

FAA in-house research and development



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Page 11 2 Methodology The Panel on Passenger Screening developed this report based on: (1) committee meetings and technical literature provided to the committee by the FAA and the National Research Council (NRC) staff, (2) presentations by outside experts who briefed the panel on specific passenger screening technologies and implementation and operational issues, and (3) a workshop on passenger screening during which several outside organizations presented their views and concerns. Panel members were also invited to meetings of the NRC Committee on Aviation Security, which oversaw this study, to hear presentations by experts on various aspects of passenger screening technologies, explosives detection systems, and security issues concerning both passengers and baggage. The panel membership included experts in human factors, risk perception and psychology, imaging science, electrical engineering, chemical detection, health effects of radiation, and legal issues. PANEL MEETINGS The panel conducted five meetings between February and September 1995 to gather information used in developing this report. In preparation for these meetings, the panelists received technical and nontechnical literature on various aspects of passenger screening technologies for their review and consideration. Information was provided by the FAA and by outside experts, who are listed in table 2-1. WORKSHOP ON PASSENGER SCREENING The panel held the Workshop on New Technologies for Passenger Screening to gain a broader perspective on health, privacy, comfort, and other concerns regarding passenger screening from organizations interested in air travel safety. The workshop was held on June 3, 1995, at the NRC Georgetown facilities in Washington, D.C. Panel members, FAA staff, and representatives of other organizations participated in the workshop (see table 2-2). These representatives also provided the panel with written comments contained in appendix B. At the workshop, the panel members discussed passenger screening issues (particularly issues related to health and privacy) with representatives of professional associations and interest groups. The panel considered the contributions of workshop participants excellent and useful. However, screening technologies were discussed only in general, and the TABLE 2-1  Speakers and Topics Presented to the Panel on Passenger Screening Speaker Affiliation Topic       Douglas Smith U.S. Customs Service Technology for contraband detection Art Janata Pacific Northwest Laboratories Chemical sensor options Nicholas Virca Nicolet Imaging Systems Technology of the Secure 1000 Dale Murray Sandia National Laboratories Electromagnetic portal technology Dan Issacharoff Consultant Risk analysis system used by El Al Ray Smietan U.S. Department of Justice Department of Defense/Department     of Justice weapons detection program James Fobes FAA FAA human factors program Paul Jankowski FAA FAA research and development Frank Fox FAA FAA in-house research and development

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Page 12 TABLE 2-2  Organizations at the Workshop on New Technologies for Passenger Screening Organization Representative     Air Transport Association of America (Washington, D.C.) S. Rork Airport Law Enforcement Agents Network (Dallas-Fort Worth Airport. Texas) A. Dodson American Association of Airport Executives (Alexandria, Va.) A. Graser Airports Council International North America (Washington, D.C.) A. Graser American Civil Liberties Union (Washington, D.C.) D. Haines Association of Flight Attendants (Washington, D.C.) M. Leith Aviation Consumer Action Project (Washington, D.C.) G. Frankosky ITS, a provider of airport security personnel and services (Cleveland, Ohio) S. Dennison Regional Airline Association (Washington, D.C.) D. McElroy Organizations invited but not attending: Air Line Pilots Association, International Allied Pilots Association American Society of Travel Agents Electronic Privacy Information Center Families of Pan Am 103 Lockerbie Victims of Pan Am 103   opinions of the participants should be used as a starting point for investigating concerns about specific technologies. In addition, these opinions may not be typical of opinions held by all professional associations, interest groups, or the public. A summary and analysis of the workshop are presented in chapter 8 of this report. It was evident from discussions at the workshop that data is needed on public opinion regarding the implementation of passenger-screening technologies. Little is known even about public attitudes toward the implementation of current systems. Public opinion will certainly influence the successful deployment of new screening technologies. Therefore, it is important to determine potential public attitudes toward proposed screening technologies before implementation. SUMMARY To address the issues outlined in the report, the Panel on Passenger Screening relied on the expertise of panel members and on input from various other sources. These sources included airport and air carrier personnel and organizations and individuals concerned with both the safe operation of aircraft and the interests of the traveling public.