Preliminary evidence suggests that formal training, development on the job, and self-development are much more effective when coordinated with each other and supported by a strong learning culture in organizations. However, we have just begun to think about how to integrate these different elements. More attention to this issue may be spurred by the growing realization that leadership development may be as important strategically as product development, marketing, and customer service for long-term organizational effectiveness (Hall and Seibert, 1992; McCall, 1992).


The committee has made no attempt to review this vast literature. We concentrate on studies designed to explore influences on leader competencies and training approaches. Many of these studies were conducted from a social-psychological perspective. For classic early treatments of leadership functions from a sociological perspective, see Bernard (1938) and Selznick (1957).

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