Index



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Index

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--> Index A Acquisitions, 126, 129, 132-133 Action learning, 116-117 Adhocracies, 33, 89 After-action reviews, 114 Agency theory, 5 Aid to domestic, civilian populations missions, 158, 177 Alliances among enemies, 28 integrated (See Network organizations) strategic, 124, 128-131, 134 Antiterrorism missions, 157, 174 Arms control verification missions, 157 Army. See U.S. Army Army War College, 111, 168 Assumptions within organizations. See Culture of organizations Automation, 16, 18 B Baldrige, Malcolm. See Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Battlefield. See Combat Big-Q approach. See Total quality management (TQM) Bluff-twist strategy, 181 Bonding, 83 Boundary characteristics. See Interorganizational relations Business process redesign, 57 C Center for Creative Leadership, 111, 201 Ceremonies. See Rites of passage Change within organizations, 7, 36-37, 87-95, 267 constructive, 1-3 defining, 1-93 increased tempo of, 8, 12 motivations for, 63 sustainability of, 61-62, 176 theories of, 23-24 Civil conflicts, 204 Civilians. See Military-civilian divide Collaboration, 3, 7, 126-128. See also Interorganizational relations life-cycle stages in, 137-142 rationale for, 127, 132-134, 149

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--> Collective enforcement missions. See Enforcement missions, collective Combat lessons learned from, 28 missions, 164, 166-168 Commitment, 68, 76-77 Communications advancing technologies, 13-14 computer-assisted, 16 restricting, 53 Competitiveness, 47 among organizations (See Environment) within organizations, 15-16 Computers expertise with, 15 transforming information, 2 Computer simulations, 38n Configuration theory, 23 Conflict escalation, 171 Conflict management, 3, 268 training for, 172-208 Consensus, 87, 92 Constituencies. See Multiple-constituency approach Consultants, role of, 25-26, 29-30 Consultation. See Decision making Contacts with protagonists, 166-168 skills development, 170-172 Context. See Environment Contingency theory, 20, 23, 40 in Army doctrine, 28, 171 Contractor organizations. See Prime contractor/subcontractor organizations Control, 77-79, 134-135, 140, 146 within the military, 77-78, 258-265 during negotiations, 188 Cooperation, obstacles to, 135-136 Cost analysis, 28. See also Productivity issues Cross-licensing arrangements, 128, 130-131, 133-134 Culture of organizations, 4, 6, 53, 65-96, 119, 139-141, 267 concrete forms, 81-82 congruence of, 92-94 creating, 89-90 culture clashes, 127, 142-143 culture lag, 17 defining, 67-71 and effectiveness, 70-77 examples of, 65-67 managing, 77-95, 144-145 for change, 87, 90-95, 109 tools for, 77-87 market-focused, 89-90 measuring, 72-75 military, 263 and performance, 75-77 quality culture (See Quality) reinforcing, 94-95, 102-103 subcultures, 82-86 Culture shock, 190-191 Customer satisfaction, 47 D Data, proprietary, 5 Decentralized organizations, 36 Decision making, 76, 104-105, 148 delegating, 15 effects of technology on, 17 employee participation in, 15, 100-101 primary-party role, 179-183 third-party roles, 183-190 Decision support systems, 16 Declining organizations, 51 Defense Officer Personnel Management Act, 265 Deming Prize (Japanese), 43 Democracy. See Intervention missions in support of democracy Demographic diversity, 18-19 Deployment strategies, 154. See also Preventive deployment missions Desert Shield/Storm, 29 Designing organizations. See Redesigning organizations Developmental assessment centers, 115-116 Development of organizations, 5 literature on, 24

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--> Disaster relief missions, 120, 156, 177, 179 Dispersed organizations, 36 Distribution arrangements, 128, 130-131, 133-134 Distributive processes, 174-176. See also Problem solving Doctrine-driven design. See also Redesigning organizations; U.S. Army, unit design process advantages of, 31, 32 defining, 27, 31 Downsizing for effectiveness, 48, 51-57 defining, 51-52, 56-57 negative outcomes of, 52-55 Dress codes, 88, 263-264 Drug eradication missions, 157 E Economics of organizations, 5 Effectiveness of organizations defining, 45 quality and, 43-48 Election supervision missions, 156, 177 Electronic mail, 16 Enforcement missions, collective, 156, 174, 179 Engagement, principles of, 204 Entrepreneurship, 57 Environment, 122-137 growing competitiveness of, 14 growing complexity of, 7-8, 11-19, 104 growing turbulence of, 2, 14, 148 monitoring, 100 organizational compatibility with, 2, 7, 90-91, 137-139 understanding, 127-128 Ethnic diversity, 18-19 Ethnocentrism, 68 European Quality Award, 43 European Union (EU), 120-121 Evolution and revolution theory, 23-24 Exceptional Family Member Act, 262 Expectations, 80, 106 Expert systems, 16 External conditions. See Environment F Feedback, 109-110, 202-203 multirater, 114-115 Firefighting missions, 158 Forms of organizations, 21-22. See also Interorganizational relations new, 6, 32-36 Fortune (magazine), 2 Functional matrix organizations. See Matrix organizations G Game theory, 5 General Accounting Office. See U.S. General Accounting Office General Staff College, 168 Globalization, 3, 13, 121, 148 Goals for change, 59, 93-94, 99-100 (See also Role-clarification) for military missions, 161, 179-180, 183 H Hawthorne studies, 20 High-reliability organizations, 17-18 High-risk technologies. See Technological change Horizontally integrated organizations, 35 Human capital development missions, 158 Humanitarian relief missions, 38n, 156, 163 I Identification with organizations. See Culture of organizations Ideologies within organizations. See Culture of organizations Industrial Revolution, 2 Inertia within organizations, 63-64, 74-75, 78, 87-90, 94

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--> "Informal" organizations, 35 Information economy, shift to, 2, 12 Information technologies. See also Reengineering for effectiveness advancing, 14, 58 cost of, 17 In Search of Excellence, 26 Institutional theory, 5, 12 Integrated operations. See Joint ventures Integrative processes, 176-179. See also Problem solving Interdependence. See also Interorganizational relations structuring, 184 Internal ventures, 3, 129, 132-134 International Red Cross. See Red Cross International regimes. See Regime analysis Interorganizational field analysis, 123 Interorganizational relations, 120-149, 268 boundary characteristics, 136, 145 collaboration, 3-4 governance structures for, 128-137 obstacles to, 135-136 Interpersonal skills, 103-104 Interpreters, managers as, 12 Intervention, evaluating, 8 Intervention missions in support of democracy, 157 Intraorganizational collaboration. See Internal ventures "Inverted" organizations, 36 Irrational tactics, 182 J Job rotation, 112-113 Joint ventures, 4, 128, 130-131, 134. See also Interorganizational relations Just Cause, 29 Just-in-time practices, 48 K Kill mission, 256-257 "Krunching," 209n L Language skills, foreign, 191 Layoffs, 51-53 Leadership, 28, 77-78, 97-119, 267-268. See also Training cultural, 86-87 defining, 97-105 enhancing, 105-117 inspirational, 101-102 skills, 103-105, 117-118, 143 studies of, 3-4, 6 "Lean-production" techniques, 48 Learning within organizations, 5 literature on, 24 vicarious, 25 Legitimacy of organizations, 2 Lester B. Pearson Canadian International Peacekeeping Training Center , 167, 209n Leveraging, 187 Life-cycle theory, 24 Little-q approach. See Total quality management (TQM) M Machine bureaucracies, 21 Machine intelligence, 18 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, 43-44, 46 Managers, 3, 24-26. See also Leadership changing roles of, 12, 29, 92, 117-118 competing with professionals, 15 decreasing influence of, 12 supporting, 63 Maneuvers, 182, 187 Manipulators, managers as, 12 Mathematical modeling. See Modeling, mathematical Matrix organizations, 20, 25, 35 McKinsey 7-S framework, 26 Mediation, 173. See also Negotiation Mentoring, 113-114 Mergers, 126, 129, 132-133

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--> Military. See also Control; Socialization; Technological change; U.S. Army funding, 28, 257, 260 materiel requirements, 28-29, 257 missions, new and changing, 3-4, 7, 28, 153-209 classifying, 155-164 evaluating effectiveness, 206-208 skills needed, 166-209 objectives, 28 organizational characteristics, 255-265, 268 value clashes within, 127 Military-civilian divide, 191-192 Missions. See Military Modeling behavioral role, 107-108 mathematical, 38n Motivating leaders, 3, 106-107 Multiculturalism. See Culture of organizations; Ethnic diversity; Selection Multidivisional organizations, 22 Multilateral operations, 4 Multinational operations, 120 military, 154 Multiple-constituency approach, 42 Mutual service consortia, 128, 130-133 N NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) National Security Strategy, changes in, 154 "Negotiate to Win" seminar, 176 Negotiation, 139-142, 173-179, 185-186 Networking, 103 Network organizations, 22, 33-34, 129, 132-134 "New world order,"; 154 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 120 O Observation missions, 155-156, 177 Operations other than war (OOTW), 153-209 Operator remoteness, 18 Organizational change. See Change within organizations Organizational constituencies. See Multiple-constituency approach Organizational culture. See Culture of organizations Organizational designs, 21-22. See also Redesigning organizations Organizational development. See Development of organizations Organizational effectiveness. See Effectiveness of organizations Organizational forms. See Forms of organizations Organizational inertia. See Inertia within organizations Organizational network analysis, 124 Organizational networks. See Network organizations Organizational performance. See Performance of organizations Organizational set analysis, 123 Organizational tables. See Tables of organization Organizational teamwork. See Team-based organizations; Teamwork within organizations Organizational theory, 8 utility of, 30-31 Outplacement services, 54-55 Overreacting, 197 Ownership. See Control P Pacification missions, 156, 163, 174 Participative leadership. See Decision making Peace-keeping missions, traditional, 38n, 120, 155, 160, 171-172, 198,

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--> 203, 207. See also Lester B. Pearson Canadian International Peacekeeping Training Center Perceptions, 192-193 Performance of organizations analyses, 7, 115 theories of, 92 Persian Gulf War, 17, 38n Planning. See Goals, for change Plebe system, 83 Population changes in, 18-19 ecology, 12 Post-cold war era, 120, 153-155 Postmortems. See After-action reviews Posturing tactics, 182 Praise. See Recognition Prescriptive organizational theory. See Organizational theory Preventive deployment missions, 157, 174 Prime contractor/subcontractor organizations, 22 Problem solving, 99-100 distributive processes, 174-176 integrative processes, 176-179 Productivity issues, 47-48, 52-53 Product life cycle, shortening, 14 Professional bureaucracies, 21 Professionalism, trends in, 14-16 Profit Impact of Market Strategies (PIMS) analysis, 47 Progress, defining, 8 Project-based team structures. See Adhocracies Project matrix organizations. See Matrix organizations; Team-based organizations Protective services missions, 157 Protégé system. See Mentoring Public health assistance missions, 158 Pulsating organizations, 36 Q Quality as a construct, 39-40 culture of, 48-49 defining, 40-43 summum bonum, 40 Quality circles, 48 R Racial diversity. See Ethnic diversity Rationalizing processes, 63 R&D. See Research and development (R&D) partnerships Recognition, 103 Reconfiguring organizations. See Reengineering for effectiveness Red Cross, 120 Redesigning organizations, 3, 11, 19-32, 37-38, 267 assessment of bases for, 29-32 based on doctrine, 26-29, 31-32 based on experience, 24-26, 29-30, 109-117 Reengineering for effectiveness, 57-62 as a fad, 60 as a form of downsizing, 61 "Reflexive" tactics, 186 Regime analysis, 125 Rehabilitation of infrastructure missions, 158 Reinforcement, 95, 99, 102-103 Reinventing organizations. See Reengineering for effectiveness Relief operations. See Disaster relief missions Remote sensing, 18 Renegotiation, 141-142, 144, 146 Research and development (R&D) partnerships, 128, 130-133 Resources allocating, 102, 121 analysis of, 28 Reviews. See After-action reviews Risks, increasing, 17-18 Rites of passage, 83-85, 95 Role-clarification, 98-99 Role-playing, 108, 200, 209n Rules of engagement. See Engagement, principles of

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--> S Sanctions enforcement missions, 157-158 Saving face, 184 Scientific knowledge, explosion in, 13-14 Selection, 78-79, 95 Service consortia. See Mutual service consortia 7-S framework. See McKinsey 7-S framework Shared decision making. See Decision making Simple organizations, 21 Simulations. See also Computer simulations in training programs, 108-109, 196-197 Skunkworks, 36 Social contagion, 102 Socialization, 79-81, 95 within the military, 79 Societal structure, 193-195 Soviet Union, breakup of, 153-154 Special assignments, 111-112 Spread sheets, 16 State/nation building missions, 156, 163 Strategic alliances. See Alliances Strategic choices, 12, 181-184 Stress, 54 Subcultures. See Culture of organizations Summum bonum. See Quality Supraorganizational designs, 22, 34 Symbolic action, 102 T Tables of organization, 28-29 Team-based organizations, 21, 32-33. See also Adhocracies Teamwork within organizations, 63, 80 Technological change, 2, 16-18 higher risks associated with, 17-18 impact on military, 28 Temporary team structures. See Adhocracies Theory. See Agency theory; Configuration theory; Contingency theory; Evolution and revolution theory; Game theory; Institutional theory; Life-cycle theory; Organizational theory Threats, military, 28 Total quality management (TQM), 5-6, 8, 39-51 defining, 49-50 as a fad, 45 Training cost of, 118 evaluating, 201-208 for leadership, 3, 105-109 for operations other than war, 168-169, 195-205 techniques, 107 technological, 17 Training-effectiveness nexus, 203-205 Transaction cost analysis, 5, 34, 126 Transforming organizations, 8, 63. See also Leadership Transnational demands, 3 Transportation technologies, advancing, 14 Trial with memory strategy, 189-190 Trust within organizations, 53, 60, 76 Turbulence in organizations. See Environment Two-faced organizations, 36 U Underlying assumptions within organizations. See Culture of organizations Unit design process. See U.S. Army, unit design process United Nations (UN) command, 154-155 Department of Peacekeeping Operations, 172, 209n mandates, 206 United States Military Academy at West Point, 82-86

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--> U.S. Army all-volunteer, 91-92 changing missions of, 153-209 leadership development programs, 111 unit design process, 27-29 U.S. Army Research Institute, 3-4 U.S. Department of Commerce, 43 U.S. General Accounting Office, 45-46 U.S. Institute of Peace, 209n V Value network partnerships. See Network organizations Vertically integrated organizations. See Network organizations Viability of organizations, 2 Video conferencing, 16 Virtual organizations. See Network organizations Vision of the future, 59, 63, 102, 104 W West Point. See United States Military Academy at West Point Women in the labor force, 18, 91, 114