1. long periods of incremental adjustment and resistance to environmental change and occasional brief periods of major redesign.
  2. Some organizational changes, incremental for the most part, seem to be age related. As organizations grow older, they develop greater internal specialization of roles and more coordination processes and structures.



1Many of the missions and roles central to the U.S. Army and other forces during the cold war are adjusting to new realities and their requirements. Although the United States will be prepared, as it was in the Persian Gulf War, to respond to conventional military threats, it is still struggling with new and unfamiliar missions such as peace-keeping and humanitarian relief. Our examination focused on the redesign of force structures and unit organizations for responding to traditional hostile threats. Although we have considered peacekeeping issues elsewhere in this report, our focus is on the process rather than the design of peacekeeping units.


2The process of force development is far more complex than can or need be reported here in order to understand the basic doctrine-driven design approach used in unit design. Army force structuring and force development are accomplished in response to a National Military Strategy Document, which is updated every two years. Information on the process may be found in U.S. Army (1995).


3The Army's use of mathematical modeling and computer simulation to determine the organizational design characteristics most likely to lead to high levels of performance prompts us to note that organizational and management scientists frequently use least square statistical analysis and occasionally data development analysis to determine the relationships between organizational design characteristics and organizational performance for particular groups of highly similar organizations.


4Organizations and teams can be networked internally and externally with the aid of electronic networks. However, the electronic network is not a requirement for networking to occur.

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