only if lines of communication are open. This communication is a responsibility shared by Henry and his adviser.

At this point, Henry can only make the best of a poor situation. To begin with, he should seek out opinions from the other members of his research committee. He has already done considerable research; with their guidance, he should be able to put together a decent (if not first-class) dissertation. He might have hoped for better, but obtaining a PhD at least provides a tangible return on his investment of effort.

Finding a Job

Carol should start immediately to learn what she can about corporate culture. She should use her contacts and friends to obtain coaching from biotechnology experts and others familiar with private-company values.

She should also sharpen her communication skills by working with friends, taking classes, or hiring a tutor. Disciplinary groups are especially helpful. They often have listings of job-opening services that help to match employers looking for employees with members looking for jobs and a variety of written guidance material, including resume, interview, and job-search guides.

Scientists and engineers who work for industry are commonly called on to work in teams, to follow products beyond the laboratory, and to interact with customers or co-workers in other disciplines. Therefore, Carol would benefit from good skills in communication, teamwork, and leadership. Industry places more emphasis on timeliness, goals, and cost control than there is in academic research. Even a brief experience in an industrial laboratory during a sum-



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