• 6.  

    The FCC reports that a typical deployment consists of a fiber ring containing from 20 to 200 strands, with ends connected at a hub station. Each customer is therefore served by two redundant routes to the hub.

  • 7.  

    See EDGE (1995). Note also that data traffic on the Internet has been growing far more rapidly, as noted in Chapter 4; however, it begins from a small base compared to data traffic on public and private networks overall.

  • 8.  

    See PC Week, Oct. 17, 1994, p. A10.

  • 9.  

    Demand for modems is driven not only by the need for remote access to corporate networks by workers in the home and on the road, but also by applications such as on-line services and Internet access (IDC, 1995c).

  • 10.  

    This theme was raised by several participants in the forum. For discussion of early results of trials, see Schwartz (1995).

  • 11.  

    Robert Luff, chief technical officer of Scientific-Atlanta, quoted in Communications Daily (1995e).

  • 12.  

    Preliminary data provided to NRC staff by CTIA, June 1995.

  • 13.  

    By one estimate, the cost could be $14 per circuit, as opposed to $5,555 per circuit using current, analog cellular technology. Assumptions in this estimate include cell site spacing of 20,000 feet versus PCS base station (port) spacing of 1,000 feet and 180 channels per cell or a PCS port. The cost per PCS base station is estimated to be far less than that for a cellular base station, at approximately $2,500 instead of $1 million; the PCS system would use many more stations, and the cost per available circuit in the total system would be much lower. See Cox (1995), p. 31.

  • 14.  

    Research and development related to incorporating multiple cellular standards in software, which would reduce the cost of handsets, are in progress and may help alleviate this burden within several years. See OTA (1995), pp. 84-86.

  • 15.  

    See OTA (1995), pp. 78-79. For example, the bond rating for the Iridium project, a planned LEO satellite-based voice telephony service, was recently downgraded, leading the company to revise its efforts to raise through external debt the $4.7 billion expected to be needed to deploy its 66-satellite system. The firm now plans to raise funds internally. See Communications Daily, September 21, 1995, p. 5.

  • 16.  

    The NTIA, part of the U.S. Department of Commerce, is the executive branch agency with responsibility for telecommunications policy and management of radio spectrum for government uses. See Telecommunications Reports (1995j).

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