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control regime on products with encryption capabilities for confidentiality is intended to serve two primary purposes:
• To delay the spread of strong cryptographic capabilities and the use of those capabilities throughout the world. Senior intelligence officials recognize that in the long run, the ability of intelligence agencies to engage in signals intelligence will inevitably diminish due to a variety of technological trends, including the greater use of cryptography.1
• To give the U.S. government a tool for monitoring and influencing the commercial development of cryptography. Since any U.S. vendor that wishes to export a product with encryption capabilities for confidentiality must approach the U.S. government for permission to do so, the export license approval process is an opportunity for the U.S. government to learn in detail about the capabilities of such products. Moreover, the results of the license approval process have influenced the cryptography that is available on the international market.
4.1.2 General Description2
Authority to regulate imports and exports of products with cryptographic capabilities to and from the United States derives from two items of legislation: the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) of 1949 (intended to regulate munitions) and the Export Administration Act (EAA; intended to regulate so-called dual-use products3). The AECA is the legislative basis for the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), in which the U.S. Munitions List (USML) is defined and specified. Items on the USML are regarded for purposes of import and export as munitions, and the ITAR are administered by the Department of State. The EAA is the legislative basis for the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), which