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Auditing, 354

Authentication

of an identity, 354, 367-370, 374, 450, 468

defined, 354

of digital cash tokens, 478-479

of a file, 354

infrastructure for, 338-339

of a message, 354, 367

uses of, 42-43, 47, 123-125

see also Audit trails

Authenticity, 354

Authorization, 354, 368n

Availability, 354

B

Back door

access, 56

defined, 354

hidden, 201-201n, 203, 277

open, 276-277

see also Escrowed encryption

Banking and finance services, vii, 23, 35-36n, 57, 123, 179, 312, 455-458, 470;

see also Credit cards; Digital cash

Binary digit, 354

Biometric identifiers, 368-369

Bit, 354

Bit stream, 355

Bollinger, Lee, 344

Bush, President George, 100

see also National Security Directive 42

C

CALEA, see Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1995 (CALEA)

Cantwell bill, 254-255

CAPI, see Cryptographic applications programming interfaces (CAPI)

Capstone chip, 176, 355

Capstone/Fortezza initiative, 10, 176-177, 179, 355

Caracristi, Ann, 344

CCL, see Commerce Control List (CCL)

Cellular phones, 11, 67, 217, 295, 327-328

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 91n, 95, 100, 403, 422-423, 428-429

see also Executive Order 12333 and Executive Order 12472

CERT, see Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT)

Certificate

authorities, 75-77, 355, 450-454

infrastructure, 232-234

Certification, 355

Certification authority, 355

Checksum, 367

CIA, see Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Ciphertext, 172n, 355, 374

Circumventing laws against unescrowed encryption, 269, 330

Civil liberties, viii, 44n, 44-46

Civiletti, Benjamin R., 344-345

CJ, see Commodity jurisdiction (CJ)

Cleartext, 355

Clinton, President William, 95, 100

Clinton Administration, 41, 170, 235, 265-266, 303, 376

Clipper

chip, xii, 171-174, 230, 355

initiative, 356, 376, 445n

see also Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES)

CMVP, see Cryptographic Module Validation Program (CMVP)

CoCom, see Coordinating Committee (CoCom) nations

Code grabbers, 42n

Collateral cryptography, 356

Commerce Control List (CCL), 8n, 115, 117, 122, 125n, 135, 160n, 260

see also Export controls

Commerce Department, see Department of Commerce

Commodity jurisdiction (CJ), 8n, 115, 165, 260, 638-640

Communications, xii, 20, 53-54

Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1995 (CALEA), 216-221, 278, 281, 503, 510-511

text of, 540-550

Competitive access providers, 356

Compuserve, 148, 431-432n

Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT), 241-242

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), xviii-xix, 20n, 73n



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