Index

A

access to education, 46-48

minority enrollments, 55-56

African-Americans

1890 colleges, 1, 15, 47

Agency for International Development, U.S., 2

alternative agriculture, 18

B

Bailey, Liberty Hyde, 90

Bankhead-Jones Act, 14

biotechnology, 22-23, 30

technology transfer, 97

bridging agreements / programs, 5, 31, 32, 56

C

capacity building programs, 56

challenge grants, 50-51

application, 14 n.2

current institutional spending, 52

for innovative teaching, 5, 8, 65

checkoff funding, 82

collaborative research and development agreements, 83

competitive grants

alternative allocation mechanisms, 83-84

characteristics, 78

current federal allocation, 9, 73

equitable distribution, 79-80

experiment station research, 28

for extension, 103

recommendations for, 5, 9, 12, 75-80, 103

Congress, U.S., food and agriculture advisory boards, 26-27

consumers

in food and agriculture system, 3, 22, 25

research agenda and, 97

cooperative extension. see extension activities;

extension funding

Current Research Information System (CRIS), 26, 73

D

Department of Agriculture, U.S.

college and university spending, 50, 52

current research spending, 9

intramural research, 14 n.1, 73

in LGCA system management, 2, 14

recommendations for institutional linkages, 8

research spending, 73-80

diet and health, 15-17, 25

extension activities, 91

as multidisciplinary science, 101

distance learning

applications, 35, 36

recommendations for, 4, 33

E

economic development, 100

education

curriculum revitalization projects, 61

environmental/natural resource, 62-65

faculty characteristics, 56-58

faculty exchanges, 56

federal role, 50-51

lifelong, 39

minority student enrollment, 55-56



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OCR for page 117
--> Index A access to education, 46-48 minority enrollments, 55-56 African-Americans 1890 colleges, 1, 15, 47 Agency for International Development, U.S., 2 alternative agriculture, 18 B Bailey, Liberty Hyde, 90 Bankhead-Jones Act, 14 biotechnology, 22-23, 30 technology transfer, 97 bridging agreements / programs, 5, 31, 32, 56 C capacity building programs, 56 challenge grants, 50-51 application, 14 n.2 current institutional spending, 52 for innovative teaching, 5, 8, 65 checkoff funding, 82 collaborative research and development agreements, 83 competitive grants alternative allocation mechanisms, 83-84 characteristics, 78 current federal allocation, 9, 73 equitable distribution, 79-80 experiment station research, 28 for extension, 103 recommendations for, 5, 9, 12, 75-80, 103 Congress, U.S., food and agriculture advisory boards, 26-27 consumers in food and agriculture system, 3, 22, 25 research agenda and, 97 cooperative extension. see extension activities; extension funding Current Research Information System (CRIS), 26, 73 D Department of Agriculture, U.S. college and university spending, 50, 52 current research spending, 9 intramural research, 14 n.1, 73 in LGCA system management, 2, 14 recommendations for institutional linkages, 8 research spending, 73-80 diet and health, 15-17, 25 extension activities, 91 as multidisciplinary science, 101 distance learning applications, 35, 36 recommendations for, 4, 33 E economic development, 100 education curriculum revitalization projects, 61 environmental/natural resource, 62-65 faculty characteristics, 56-58 faculty exchanges, 56 federal role, 50-51 lifelong, 39 minority student enrollment, 55-56

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--> in non-land grant schools, 62 of foreign students, 48 problem-solving orientation, 60, 65-67 program design, 59-62 rationale for LGCA system, 46-50 recommendations for, 67-68 student characteristics, 53, 55 student exchanges/transfers, 56 student recruitment, 54 tuition and fees, 48 USDA spending, 50-51 see also teaching 1890 colleges, 1, 15, 30, 32, 47 current status, 80 extension activities, 95 funding, 5, 6, 7, 12, 80, 95 recommendations for, 5, 6, 7, 12, 80-81 research activities, 80 student enrollment, 55-56 1862 colleges, 1, 15 in regionalization of LGCA system, 32 tuition and fees, 48 electronic technology for education, 34, 35 geographic information systems, 55 Elementary and Secondary Education Reauthorization Act, 15, 56 employment trends, 1, 3, 13, 15 demand for food and agriculture graduates, 51 environmental concerns, 15, 18, 22 academic programs, 62-65 extension activities and, 96-97 as rationale for federal involvement in extension, 90-91 EPSCoR. see Experimental Program for Stimulating Competitive Research ESCOP. see Experiment Station Committee on Organization and Policy Experiment Station Committee on Organization and Policy (ESCOP), 27-28 Experimental Program for Stimulating Competitive Research (EPSCoR), 5, 79 extension activities consumers of, 25 cooperative vs. university extension, 87, 88 current context, 87, 92 federal role, 90-92 future prospects, 93-94 historical development, 93 information management, 91-92 integration with research and teaching activities, 37-41, 42, 89, 91 interpretation of regulations as, 89 LGCA system mission, 14 national interest and, 88-89 non-USDA federal agency interests in, 92 nonfarm/nonrural, 6, 94, 98-101, 102 opportunities for improvement, 87-88 oversight, 10-11 performance evaluation, 43, 91-92 private-public collaboration for, 96 private vs. public roles, 94-95 privatization of, 11 recommendations for, 6-7, 92, 101-104 regional diversity, 103 regional market-based, 34-35 research base, 6, 9, 101 role of, 87, 96-98 rural economic development, 100 extension funding accountability, 91 allocation, 102-104 for 1890 colleges, 95 extension research focus and, 39 for nonfarm activities, 98 recent trends, 90 recommendations for, 4-7, 8-9, 11, 102-104 return on investment, 89 USDA, 50 F faculty appointment trends, 38 demographics, 56-58 incentives for, 58-59 student contacts, 58 farms current characteristics, 2, 14-15, 18, 23-24, 92 diversity, 28-29 incomes, 23 knowledge sources, 92 niche markets, 24 population trends, 1, 13, 15, 93 rural economic development as extension activity, 100 specialization, 94 technological change, 16-17 see also industrial agriculture Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology, 51 federal government congressional advisory bodies on food and agriculture, 26-27 in extension system, 90-92, 94-96, 98 in food and agriculture education, 50-51 in food and agriculture research, 72-80 interpretation of regulations as extension activity, 89 justification for involvement of, 43-45 in LGCA system funding, 2, 9-11, 36 in LGCA system management, 1-2, 18-19 non-USDA agencies, 6, 8, 75, 92 oversight activities, 10-11 program evaluation, 42-43 Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act, 19, 73 food safety, 25, 60 food stamp program, 23 foreign students, 48 formula funding accountability, 75 advantages of, 74-75, 103 allocation system, 33, 73-74 current federal spending, 19, 73 disadvantages of, 75, 103 for extension, 103

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--> for integrative activities, 42 recommendations for, 9-10, 12, 33, 103 4-H clubs, 54 funding accountability, 41-45 allocation, 2, 3-11, 14, 28-29, 40-41 for development of teaching practice, 5 LGCA system, 2, 14 oversight, 10-11 private sector research spending, 30 recommendations for federal contribution, 9-11, 33 recommendations for state contributions, 6, 81 regional projects, 8, 33 sources, 2, 19 USDA spending for colleges and universities, 50 see also competitive grants; formula funding G genetic engineering. see biotechnology geographic information systems, 55 Government Performance and Results Act, 42-43 Green Revolution, 69 H Hatch Act of 1887, 1, 14, 16, 73 I independent crop consultants, 97 industrial agriculture, 18 characteristics, 23 development of, 23, 24 educational needs, 60 extension needs, 94 information management Current Research Information System, 26, 73 extension system, 6, 91-92 recommendations for, 6, 92 integrated pest management, 96-97 intellectual property rights/patents, 23, 81, 82 inter- and multidisciplinary learning/research, 4, 5, 8, 35-36, 65 , 85 food and nutrition science, 101 international context academic programs, 60 privatization of extension, 94 research needs, 69-70 U.S. agriculture in, 17, 22 Internet, 8, 31, 35 internships, 60 recommendations for, 5, 62 J Joint Council on Food and Agricultural Sciences, 26-27 L land grant college of agriculture system access, 46-48, 55-56 contextual analysis, 21 cooperation within, 5, 7-8, 32, 39 current context, 2-3, 14-18 founding mandate, 1, 13-14, 46 historical development, 47 legislative history, 18-19 opportunities for improvement, 3-12 organizational structure, 1-2 rationale for teaching component, 46-50 smaller institutions, 32 stakeholder participation in, 3, 4, 25-28 unique features, 10-11 see also organizational structure of LGCA system LGCA system. see land grant college of agriculture system Lincoln University, 55 M market characteristics consumer behavior, 22 global context, 17, 22 regional extension based on, 34-35 minority populations agriculture student enrollment, 55-56 educational grants, 52 faculty demographics, 56-58 recommendations regarding, 7 Morrill Act of 1862, 1, 13, 14, 15, 47 of 1890, 1, 15 Morrill-Nelson Grants, 14 n.2, 50 Multicultural Scholars Program, 52 N National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act, 18 National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board, 27 National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, 27-28 national economy, agricultural component of, 15, 16 National Initiative for Research in Agriculture, Food, and the Environment, 5, 19, 28, 75 National Institutes of Health, 2, 75, 78 national interest, 3 extension activities and, 11, 88-89 in food and agriculture education, 47-50 in food and agriculture research, 69-70 in food and agriculture system, 10-11, 15-17, 29 program evaluation in terms of, 41-45 stakeholder participation in food and agricultural system, 3, 25-28 National Science Foundation, 2, 75 Native Americans, 7, 15, 56, 57

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--> New Mexico State University, vii new geography, 7-8, 30-31 rationale, 31-33 1994 colleges, 7, 15 O organizational structure of LGCA system current, 30 federal role, 18-19 federal-state partnership, 1-2, 14 integration of functions in, 4, 8-9, 37-41, 42, 91 intramural issues, 37 recommendations for new geography, 7-8, 30-33 for research, 73 role of colleges in, 11 stakeholder participation in, 3, 25-28 P patents. see intellectual property rights/patents population farm, 1, 13, 15, 93 world trends, 17 poverty, 23 private sector independent crop consultants, 97 LGCA research funded by, trends in, 81 public partnerships for research, 81-82 research activities, 18, 29-30 role in extension system, 94-96 privatization definition, 94 of extension activities, 11, 94-95 of research activities, 29-30 Project Sunrise, 61 public goods concept, 43-44 Purnell Act, 18 R regional activities/approach diversity in extension system, 103-104 market-based extension, 34-35 rationale, 33 rationale for federal involvement in extension, 90-91 recommendations for, 4, 7-8, 30-36 research resource allocation, 33 teaching practice, 34 research activities adaptive, 71-72 as cascade of knowledge, 70, 71 consumer influence, 97 continuum, 70-72 dissemination of findings, 72 economic models, 16-17 at 1890 colleges, 80 evaluation of, 5, 10-11, 26, 41-45, 73 extension support, 6, 9, 101 fundamental, 70, 72 integration with extension and teaching activities, 37-41, 42, 89, 91 integrative, 70-71 intellectual property rights, 23, 81, 82 national interest in, 69-70 organizational structure, 73 private sector, 18 proposal writing, 83 recommendations for, 4, 29-30, 85-86 resource allocation, 25-26, 28, 32 social rate of return, 70, 85 specialization, 31-32, 34 students in, 40 USDA intramural, 14 n.1 Research and Marketing Act, 18 research funding allocation mechanisms for competitive grants, 83-84 chunk grants, 83-84 federal role, 72-73 federal spending, 9, 73-80 inter- and multidisciplinary, 85 percentage funding methods, 84 performance-based, 84 preproposal review method, 83 private-public partnerships, 81-82 recommendations for, 4-6, 8-9 USDA, 50 via checkoff funding, 82 Roosevelt, Theodore, 90, 93 S small-business innovation research grants, 83 Smith-Lever Act of 1914, 1, 14, 98 South Dakota State University, 57 specialization information needs of farmers, 94, 96 in LGCA system, 31-32, 34 of research scientists, 38-39 state government extension funding, 95 funding of 1890 colleges, 80, 81, 95 justification for involvement of, 45 LGCA system funding by, 2, 19, 80, 81 in LGCA system management, 1-2 multistate issues, 31 recommendations for, 6, 95 Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program, 33 T teaching computer technology for, 34 encouraging innovation in, 5, 8, 65 faculty-student contacts, 58 federal grants for, 50-51 integration with extension and research activities, 37-39, 42 regional coordination, 34 science education through agriculture, 66 student internships, 5, 60

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--> systems approach, 64 transdisciplinary program, 63 tuition and fees, 48 Tuskegee University, 1 U university extension, 87, 88 University of California at Davis, 64, 67 University of California at Santa Cruz, 88 University of Connecticut, vi University of Maryland, 63 University of Minnesota, 61 University of Nebraska, 61 University of Washington, 88 University of Wisconsin, 61 urban/suburban areas agriculture student recruitment in, 54 extension activities, 94, 98-102 LGCA system and, 32-33 V von Liebig, Justus, 16 W W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 25, 61

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