multistate requirements of many modern food and agriculture system problems; and enhance its accountability to the public.
Federal funding has an important role in promoting innovation. Federal formula funds should be administered more efficiently (as one budget category rather than two); used more creatively to "jump start" programs and projects that more effectively integrate research, extension, and teaching, and the work of multiple disciplines; and their allocation among states and regions needs to be rethought, including improving the allocation and effectiveness of the 25 percent of formula research funds designated for regional projects. Federal formula funds have a particularly important role in supporting the programs of the historically Black 1890 colleges. In the interest of equity and the importance of the clientele served by historically Black 1890 colleges, states should be required to match federal formula funds to these institutions (as they are required to do in the case of 1862s).
The role of competitive grants and merit review in food and agricultural system research and extension should be enhanced. Competitive grant program administrators should also draw upon the NIH model to develop a two-tier review system, and they should continue to strive to provide incentives for inter- and multidisciplinary research in food and agriculture. Competitive grant program design should encourage participation and potential for success by smaller research institutions and 1890s (which currently rely heavily on formula funds) in order to sustain and build human capital in food and agricultural research nationwide; and multistate and multi-institutional programs and projects that reflect the appropriate geographical configuration of many contemporary food and agricultural system problems.
Their historical commitment to public service distinguishes the LGCAs. The committee's deliberations led to the conclusion that the tripartite tradition of teaching, research, and extension at the land grant colleges is a unique institutional base on which to erect the structure of knowledge that can assure a socially, economically, and ecologically sustainable food and agricultural system. Some components of colleges of agriculture could be appropriate models for the other colleges and programs of the land grant universities as they seek to integrate their teaching, research, and outreach activities.