TABLE 3-2 Tuition and Fees at 1890 Institutions, 1992–1994

Institution

Tuition and Fees

 

Added Out-of-State Tuition,

 

1992–1993

1993–1994

1993–1994

Alabama A&M University

1,550

1,550

1,600

Tuskegee University

6,535

6,735

0

University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff

1,594

1,624

1,920

Delaware State College

1,788

1,966

3,032

Florida A&M University

1,751

1,829

4,902

Fort Valley State College

1,722

1,779

1,380

Southern University A&M College

1,588

2,028

1,922

University of Maryland, Eastern Shore

2,450

2,674

4,727

Alcorn State University

2,376

2,376

2,142

Lincoln University

1,498

1,820

1,800

North Carolina A&T State University

1,270

1,367

6,066

Langston University

1,419

1,505

2,070

South Carolina State University

2,200

2,500

2,480

Tennessee State University

1,632

1,706

3,782

Prairie View A&M University

1,535

1,568

4,080

Virginia State University

2,913

3,050

3,674

 

SOURCE: Food and Agricultural Education Information System (FAEIS).

regarding food and agricultural system issues. The issues surrounding food and agriculture epitomize the complex and challenging choices that modern society must make. They involve all citizens of all income classes, ethnicities, and cultural backgrounds in all parts of the country. Thus, there is a national interest in education that produces well-informed, effective, and diverse citizen participation in public policy related to food and agriculture.

In sum, the teaching component of the LGCA's mission is like the base of the pyramid: without it the sides are not supported. Academic programs train the system's scientists, extension specialists and agents, its users and clientele, and its teachers.

The Federal Role

The original impetus for land grant legislation was the need for higher education for the majority of U.S. citizens; however, financial support for the teaching component of land grant education has since been largely delegated to states. The federal government has placed its priority on the advancement of science and agriculture through the funding of research and the dissemination of research-based knowledge through extension programs. In 1995 USDA allocated $406 million to universities and colleges for research and development (R&D), $439 million for extension programs, and $18 million for higher education grants (of which more than one-half were for institution capacity building in both teaching and research at the 1890s). The difference between $845 million for research and extension and $18 million for higher education suggests that federal support for food and agricultural systems may be relatively research intensive. In 1991 USDA contributed 4.1 percent of all federal R&D to universities and colleges, whereas it contributed only 2.3 percent of all federal grants for higher education fellowships and traineeships. Furthermore, the federal government no longer allocates grants to states specifically for teaching programs at the 1862 land grant colleges, although it continues to fund block grants to states for their state agricultural experiment stations and cooperative extension programs (programs based at land grant colleges of agriculture and employing college faculty). Morrill-Nelson grants were provided to states ($50,000 per state) until recently to support land grant teaching programs; however, these monies were merged in recent years with institution "challenge grants." Challenge grants, which are broadly



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