minority faculty in leadership positions who can serve as role models, and the quality of the academic programs (LeBlanc, 1996).1 However, the second Morrill Act did not endow the 1890 institutions with the resources appropriated for 1862s, and they were not compensated in subsequent legislation. For example, the Morrill-Nelson grants, which provided $50,000 annually to each state for land grant academic programs, were not accessible to the 1890s for many years (and even then some received only minimal amounts). Compensatory efforts have been made through capacity building programs (initiated in 1988), designed to enable these institutions to meet the needs of expanding student populations.
Twenty-nine Native American tribal colleges have recently achieved land grant status as a provision of the 1994 Elementary and Secondary Reauthorization Act. Located in 12 states, most of these institutions are 2-year and technical schools, but three are 4-year institutions and one offers a master's degree. The schools have been quite successful at providing educational opportunities to Native American and other students as well as providing important services to Native American communities, in keeping with the land grant tradition and philosophy of providing educational access and opportunity where it is needed (Campbell, 1995).
The LGCAs have a unique opportunity to assure access through the institutional linkages among the 1862, 1890, and now, the 1994 land grant institutions. The committee believes that because of their shared legacy, LGCAs should (and many do) have a commitment to facilitating access to 1862s by students at 1890 and 1994 land grants. This can be done by brokering articulation agreements between the sets of institutions that facilitate student and faculty exchanges, such as the Academic Common Market of the Southern Regional Education Board; and by establishing "2+2+2" programs to assist students in moving from the last 2 years of high school into a 2-year college program and then on to a 4-year school.
RECOMMENDATION 6. The bridging programs among 1862s, 1890s, and 1994s deserve special emphasis from federal funding programs, such as federal challenge grants, including evaluation of their effectiveness as models for expanding access and diversity in the food and agricultural sciences. The federal government should also become an active promoter of the use of articulation agreements among institutions within and across states to facilitate student exchanges and transfers, and encourage collaborative internship programs among institutions in the LGCA system. (Also see Recommendation 3.)
There are also unexploited possibilities for integrating the institutions' teaching programs. Many 1862 and 1890 land grants are not far from each other geographically; yet their students and faculty interact relatively little. There are numerous possibilities for designing courses jointly taught by 1862 and 1890 faculty, thereby enriching the diversity of backgrounds and views in the classroom as well as enhancing access.
The characteristics of the faculty of land grant colleges can be extremely important to the colleges' ability to attract students. Data about demographic characteristics of agricultural scientists holding doctorate degrees suggest they are slightly older on average than their peers in life and natural sciences, which is because the ranks of agricultural scientists are being replenished at a slower rate (National Research Council, 1995a). Women, although increasingly well represented, are still, substantially, a minority on the faculties of many agricultural colleges; and members of ethnic minorities are uncommon
A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society (National Research Council, 1989c) cites several studies that find African-American students on white campuses frequently express feelings of alienation and social isolation; luke-warm relationships with white students, faculty, and staff; and little engagement in campus activities.