About the Authors

Ralph W. F. Hardy, Chair, is the former president and chief executive officer of Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Inc., Ithaca, N.Y. He received his Ph.D. degree in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He co-founded the National Agricultural Biotechnology Council and will become its president in 1996. His broad research interests encompass biological nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis, and biotechnology. Hardy has served the National Research Council as a member of the Board on Agriculture, Board on Biology, Commission on Life Sciences, and Board on Science and Technology for International Development.

Roger N. Beachy is holder of the Scripps Family Chair, is head of the Division of Plant Biology, and is a member of the Department of Cell Biology at The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California. He is also co-director of the International Laboratory for Tropical Agricultural Biotechnology. Beachy received his Ph.D. degree in plant pathology from Michigan State University and did post-doctoral research at the University of Arizona in Tucson and at Cornell University. His research interests include plant virology and phytopathology, plant gene expression, and agricultural biotechnology.

Harold Browning, an associate professor of entomology at the University of Florida's Citrus Research and Education Center, earned his Ph.D. degree from the University of California at Riverside, where he also conducted post-doctoral research in the Department of Entomology. His research program focuses on relationships between arthropod pests and their natural enemies and the manipu-



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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century About the Authors Ralph W. F. Hardy, Chair, is the former president and chief executive officer of Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Inc., Ithaca, N.Y. He received his Ph.D. degree in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He co-founded the National Agricultural Biotechnology Council and will become its president in 1996. His broad research interests encompass biological nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis, and biotechnology. Hardy has served the National Research Council as a member of the Board on Agriculture, Board on Biology, Commission on Life Sciences, and Board on Science and Technology for International Development. Roger N. Beachy is holder of the Scripps Family Chair, is head of the Division of Plant Biology, and is a member of the Department of Cell Biology at The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California. He is also co-director of the International Laboratory for Tropical Agricultural Biotechnology. Beachy received his Ph.D. degree in plant pathology from Michigan State University and did post-doctoral research at the University of Arizona in Tucson and at Cornell University. His research interests include plant virology and phytopathology, plant gene expression, and agricultural biotechnology. Harold Browning, an associate professor of entomology at the University of Florida's Citrus Research and Education Center, earned his Ph.D. degree from the University of California at Riverside, where he also conducted post-doctoral research in the Department of Entomology. His research program focuses on relationships between arthropod pests and their natural enemies and the manipu-

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century lation of indigenous and exotic parasites and predators to enhance natural control processes in perennial subtropical and tropical production systems. Jerry D. Caulder is currently chairman, president, and chief executive officer of Mycogen Corporation, San Diego, California. Caulder concurrently serves on the boards of directors of the Biotechnology Industry Organization; Environmental Services & Engineering, Inc.; and Applied Genetics. He is also a member of the Advisory Council on Small Business and Agriculture of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Caulder earned M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in agronomy and plant physiology at the University of Missouri. He retains an ownership interest in a cotton farm in Missouri. Raghavan Charudattan is professor of plant pathology at the University of Florida. He received his Ph.D. degree in plant pathology and mycology from the University of Madras, India, and was a post-doctoral research plant pathologist at the University of California at Davis. His research involves biological and integrated controls of weeds using plant pathogens as classical and bioherbicide agents, host-pathogen interactions, diseases of aquatic plants, fungal toxins, and epidemiology. He is a founding editor of the journal Biological Control: Theory and Application in Pest Management. Peter Faulkner, a Career Investigator of the Medical Research Council of Canada and a professor of microbiology at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, received his Ph.D. degree in neurobiochemistry from McGill University, Montreal. As a career study, however, he chose the biochemistry and molecular genetics of insect viruses. Most recently his work has focused on studying the early stages of viral interactions with pest insects and developing strategies to construct recombinant baculoviruses that would be acceptable for release as a class of pest-control agents that would present a minimal intrusive effect on the natural ecosystem. Fred L. Gould earned his Ph.D. degree in ecology and evolution at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He is currently a professor of entomology at North Carolina State University. His research interests include ecological genetics of pest adaptation to chemical, biological, and cultural control tactics. His major emphasis in recent years has been focused on developing strategies for sustainable use of transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Maureen Kuwano Hinkle, director of agricultural policy for the National Audubon Society, received her B.A. degree in political science from Wellesley College. Hinkle is primarily involved in policy analysis and technology assessment concerning legislation and implementation of farm bills, pesticide regulation, wetlands conservation, and associated issues. Her research interests include

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century integrated pest management, conservation tillage, exotic species, and uses of technology in pest management. Bruce A. Jaffee is an associate professor in the Department of Nematology at the University of California at Davis. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in plant pathology from Cornell University. His research concerns the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and the population biology of soil-inhabiting nematodes and their natural enemies. His most recent work has focused on suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes by resident or introduced fungi. Mary K. Knudson is an assistant research scientist in the School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health at the University of Michigan. She earned her M.S. degree in plant breeding-plant genetics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and her Ph.D. degree in agricultural and applied economics from the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. Knudson has been involved in research concerning such issues as public regulation of agricultural biotechnology field tests, the impact of intellectual property rights on genetic diversity, and agricultural diversity to meet future needs. W. Joe Lewis is a research entomologist with the Insect Biology and Population Management Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. He is also a founding editor of the journal Biological Control: Theory and Application in Pest Management. His research includes foraging behavior of beneficial insects; multitrophic level interactions between parasitoids, herbivores, and plants, with an emphasis on the role of semiochemicals; and the development of an ecologically based pest management system for cotton and other row crops. He earned his M.S. degree and Ph.D. degree in entomology at Mississippi State University. Joyce E. Loper is a research plant pathologist with the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and an associate professor of plant pathology at Oregon State University. She received her M.S. degree in plant pathology from the University of California at Davis and Ph.D. degree in plant pathology from the University of California at Berkeley. Her research work includes the molecular genetics, ecology, and physiology of bacteria that inhabit the plant rhizosphere and suppress plant disease caused by soil-borne pathogens. She directs a laboratory group studying biological control of plant diseases, focusing on elucidation of mechanisms involved in biological control. Daniel L. Mahr earned his Ph.D. degree in entomology at the University of California at Riverside. He is professor of entomology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and entomologist with the university's extension service. He conducts research and extension programs to develop improved pest management practices and is responsible for coordinating extension biological control programs for the university's Department of Entomology. He is concurrently the

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Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century project director of the newsletter Midwest Biological Control News and coordinator of a series of pest management manuals focusing on biological control practices in the north-central United States. Neal K. Van Alfen is head of the Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology at Texas A&M University. He earned his M.S. degree from Brigham Young University and his Ph.D. degree in plant pathology from the University of California at Davis. His primary research has been on the mechanisms of virulence expression by plant pathogens and methods of reducing pathogen virulence for biological control of plant diseases. Current research interests include biological control of forest diseases, viruses of fungi, and effects of disease on plant/water relations.