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Some Illustrative Preservation Problems and Treatments in Washington, D.C. l. WALTER ROTH In conjunction with a self-guided tour of historic stone buildings and: monu- ments in the District of Columbia a diagrammatic map was prepared, noting not only the street locations of the subjects but also the nearest stations of the Metro subway system. A brief statement about each subject describes pertinent preservation problems, treatments, and evaluations if any. The map and descriptions do not constitute a single tour to be comprehended as a unit; rather, they comprise a limited catalog of cases from which one can select those subjects of particular interest and convenience. The subject buildings and monuments-are not limited to the U.S. Public Buildings Service inventory. The basis for selection is their potential to dem- onstrate a variety of problem conditions and to illustrate the effects of various treatments or the lack thereof. To the greatest extent possible, the presentation incorporates expositions of problems as perceived by the users and the stewards of these properties. Aside from its intrinsic worth as a direct statement of specific site-related masonry problems and treatments, this presentation, be- cause of its visual nature, should serve as a stimulus to suggest similar situ- ation~ possibly even -solutions. Masonry has been the architectural material of choice since time im- memorial. It has been favored for its permanency and its ability to achieve spectacular effects of size- and scale, texture and coloreven J. Walter Roth is Director, Historic Preservation Staff, Public Buildings Service, General Services Administration, Washington, D. C. 31

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32 CONSERVATION OF HISTORIC STONE BUILDINGS though such effects were frequently directed toward symbolic, orna- mental, or literal representations of less permanent materials, objects, or individuals. Masonry has been an architecturally attractive material, not only because of its inherent aesthetic qualities but also because it gave the greatest promise of immortality to the works of man. When natural masonry, that is to say stone, was not available, man made it from materials at hand, using mud, clay, cement, sand, gravel, glass, steel, and even seashells to produce adobe, brick, terra-cotta, concrete, or tabby. Man has transformed those imitative materials into surrogates for an ideal stone. What would make a stone ideal? Implicit aesthetic qualities, the potential for achieving astounding structural and archi- tectural effectsand the magic to last forever. To last forever is not an unusual objective of people, particularly in their collective or national manifestations, and that objective histor- ically has been expressed in monuments erected to symbolize or shelter their institutions. Nations invest much of their resources in those constructions in an effort to make them permanent as well as im- pressive. But permanency may be perceived in a passive sense to mean that once an edifice is erected it will be there forever and nothing more need ever be done to it. A certain amount of obvious aging of buildings and monuments is acceptable to most observers. Such aging is anal- ogous to the development of character in the visage of man. Venerable, honored institutions may be better appreciated by some in edifices that visibly exhibit their witness to history. That is typically the case with older nations. The brand new, instant capitals of younger nations pose an anomaly in that regard. These nations pride themselves on their newness, their freshness, and their orientation to the future rather than the past. Given the opportunity and the ability, we would build our way to immortality. It has been tried before. In spite of the biblical lesson of Babel, we persist in our efforts to gain infinity if not through the extension of space, then through the entrapment of time, the attain- ment of eternity in our monuments. Typically, our architecture, sacred or profane, endeavors to express stability, substance, strength, and endurance. Even in the workaday environments we create, we strive for longevity without limits, if possible. If, like Le Corbusier, we see our buildings as "machines," then our ideal is to invent the perfect independent engine the perpetual nonmotion machine, as it were. It may be naive for us to wish for machines that go on forever without attention, without maintenance, repair, or replacement. But that is

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Preservation Problems and Treatments in Washington, D.C. 33 what man, the irnrnortality seeker, has always wanted. He has espe- cially sought this ideal in his special symbols, his monuments. One of the inspired concepts in the program of this Conference on the Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments is the idea of a self-conducted walking tour of masonry buildings and mon- urnents in Washington, D.C. (see pages 47-481. I say inspired because, first, the idea did not originate with me and, second, because it trans- lates into actual experience the content {or should I say the discontent? of our concerns. I would submit that most people are interested observers of the passing parade and the backdrops against which life's comedies and tragedies are played. But while most people are interested observers, they are also typically casual, as opposed to clinical, observers. When we look at the pretty young girl or the bent old man, the puffing jogger or the babbling babe, we are not making a fragmentary analysis of their skin condition or the state of their arches, their circulation or their communication systems. Most people as they walk or ride past build- ings and monuments do not analyze in detail the conditions manifested or implied by separate, specific physical signs. Yet many people, de- pending on their sensitivity, experience, or knowledge, are inclined to make intuitive or summary evaluations of structuresevaluations that may go beyond an estimation of existing conditions and proceed from diagnosis to prognosis. I am suggesting that we are making evaluations all the time about all sorts of things. Estimations, value judgmentscall them what you will- they are the stuff of cybernetics, data for decision makers. And Washington is the mecca of decision makers. Decisions minor and rnaj or, simple and complex, early and late, are made constantly though not necessarily with constancy among these marble temples dedi- cated to faith in the processes of governance. Washington is an especially good place to observe masonry. It is a monumental city in many ways, ranging from the sweep and scale of its baroque plan to its very name, which monurnentalizes the symbolic father of the nation. The accornrnodation of a multitude of government agencies, national foundations and associations, institutions of higher Lansing, and any number of organizations having special status or seeking it has produced over the years a collection of constructions in masonry unmatched in other American cities of similar size. In spite of the predilection of our national leaders for the classical in architecture (thus ensuring a predisposition to stone), Washington has followed trends into a variety of styles, original or eclectic, but

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34 CONSERVATION OF HISTORIC STONE BUILDINGS always finding its form in masonry. The masonry itself has been highly varied, selected sometimes strictly for its architectural effect, but all too Owen chosen for convenience: geographic, economic, or political. As a result Washington has a great diversity of stones in its buildings and monuments some resulting almost accidentally from ready avail- ability or success in competition, others especially solicited to serve as ambassadors, as it were, of the states and foreign countries. For instance, the exterior of the Washington Monument demonstrates the former case with- a progression of cladding marbles from Maryland, Massachusetts, and Maryland again, while the interior of the monu- ment exemplifies the latter, containing a collection of commemorative stones from all over the United States and abroad. Washington is a place of "hype" and "hyper." The construction of the sandstone Norman Castle of the Smithsonian Institution in 1848 was preceded by a highly professions public relations campaign, in- cluding the publication of Robert Dale Owen's Hints on Public Ar- chitectur~an early example of the hard sell. These days, architectural proposals are previewed, viewed, and reviewed by dozens of authorities before they are finally realized, and many evaporate in the heat and pressure of the process. For better or worse, a great amount of attention is given to every aspect of planning, funding, design, and contraction. In some cases, operation and maintenance of the edifice are also con- sidered, but in the jargon of hype and hyper those considerations do not tend to be "up front." Yet, the promise, if not the practice, of more complete custodial care and record keeping is potentially available in Washington because it is the nation's capital, the locus of national pride and international interest. Mention was made earlier of the observation of elements or events in- the environment and how-those observations can lead to diagnosis and prognosis.-Mention was also made of the physical embodiment of ideals and how they may be enshnned in everlasting, ever-shining glory. Sooner or later there must come the realization that unless there is constant care and renewal, entropy will take its toll. In a system in which everything must be paid for any eve~ng has a price increasingly exorbitant philosophical ideals are fre- quently attenuated and sometimes compromised. The physical ideals for our buildings and monuments- are even more easily.conceded. Ma- ture people know that it is possible to grow old gracefully; in fact, they learn that it is an imperative. People also learn that objects can age with grace and beauty and, in fact, with increased interest. Aesthetic and associative qualities are enhanced with the passage of time and

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Preservation Problems and Treatments in Washington, D.C. 35 the resultant weathering, coloration, and advent of individual physical characteristics. As fresh building materials react and adapt to the influences of climate and immediate environment they develop personalities, as it were. They also become members of the community, asserting their intention to stay. Eventually they settle in and, if they mature without unusual stress or accident, look as though they have always been there and should remain. As the process of degradation proceeds, however, the tolerance level recedes, and the degree of acceptance of these treas- ured old piles diminishes in proportion to their degradation. Many people would be pleased to retain the wom, weathered building for its intrinsic symbolic value. But as maintenance and operation become increasingly Difficult, physical endurance, the demands of new uses, and the price people are willing to cav for retention of Anal fabric ah reach their limits. ~cat a_ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~^~ To compare the aging and deterioration of buildings to that of people is not far-fetched in my estimation. Similes may be made at various stages: Thorough, sensible, environmental planning and thoughtful design detailing may be compared to prenatal care; proper adjustment and correction measures may be compared to infancy and preadoles- cence; initial protective treatments and routine maintenance in op- erations may be compared to a period of growth and early maturity. We may compare special maintenance measures to the exigencies of midge age, adaptive reuse to a period of retirement, restoration and replacement to old age, and recordation to memorialization when the decision is fmally made to bid farewell to old friends. The stewardship of significant buildings and monuments entails a variety of responsibilities, particularly in a national capital. These structures serve as the backdrop for significant events or activities. Sometimes they are even the featured players in the brief dramas that flit across our TV screens during the nightly newscasts. Those who have the prime responsibility for planning, design, construction, op- eration, and maintenance come under the scrutiny of the Secretary of the Interior's advisory boards, the National Capital Planning Com-- mission, the National Commission of Fine Arts, the General Services Administration evaluation panels, the General Accounting Office, and the Office of Management and Budget, not to mention numerous com- ponents of the sponsoring and using federal agencies and the govem- ment of the District of Columbia Eventually, the ultimate critic, the clientJowner (that is to say the taxpayer) has his say and he is not at ah hesitant in voicing his opinion concerning the aesthetics and utility

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36 CONSERVATION OF HISTORIC STONE BUILDINGS of the very stones of his properties. Frequently the opinions are irate. Sometimes they even come in the form of tort claims for injuries resulting from some simple stone problem or, even worse, from a well- intentioned corrective or preventive measure. Masonry preservation problems may be categorized in several types; their corrective or pre- ventive treatments, being an evolving and often expedient art (or sci- ence), probably defy categorization. STAINING AND DISCOLORATION Probably the most frequently encountered problem is the discoloration of masonry. I am not talking about the occasional efflorescence of new brickwork or the inevitable weathering of freshly worked stone sur- faces, nor am I talking about the gradual effects of air pollution or the mindless impact of animal life. I am talking about the stains that result from the transfer of matter from adjacent substances. This kind of discoloration is very familiar, a result of runoff from dissimilar materials and dirt. The most casual observer cannot help but notice the green stains on the marble bases of bronze statues or on the facades of those buildings covered by copper roofs. The old saying that familiarity breeds contempt may not be applicable; in this case, familiarity seems to breed tolerance, acceptance, expectation. That is on an emotional level. The intellectual acceptance of a coating of verdigris on stone may be accommodated by the understanding that it is not harmlbT, indeed might be helpful, and at least can be visually interesting. This sort of thinking process is abetted when one can see or imply the source: roof coverings, doors, window frames, exterior hardware, sculpture, or other architectural ornament or accessories. Staining from unseen sources, such as flashing, cramps, conduits, gutters, reinforce- ment, wiring, and similar devices, may puzzle the casual observer and alarm the concerned professional. To the former it is at most an in- stance of an unaccountable effect; to the latter it is at least an indication of imminent or eventual failure, possibly danger. Traditional materials and designs may produce staining that we are conditioned to anticipate, even to accept. But newer architectural or artistic concepts and less familiar materials bring with them different patterns and kinds of staining and are less likely to find acceptance or understanding. For example, buildings and sculptures utilizing the new weathering steels (such as Cor-Ten or Mayari-R) can produce obvious and repulsive red-brown runoff or puddle stains. Perhaps time will provide a tolerance for and acceptance of such effects; perhaps the

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Preservation Problems and Treatments in Washington, D.C. FIGURE 1 "The Arts of War: Sacrifice" by Leo Fnedlander {1951~. Runoff from mercury-bearing gilding on this bronze statue at the northeast entrance to Arlington Memonal Bndge produces pro- nounced staining on the granite base. 37 designers will learn to manage problems inherent in the nature of those forms and matenals. WEATHERING AND POLLUTION The effects of weathering and pollution are less direct than staining from adjacent materials, but eventually can be just as obvious and problematic. Because the effects do tend to be more gradual and general, there may be an even greater degree of tolerance and acceptance than for the isolated, spotty instances of staining. Ike general effects of weathenng, as opposed to the particular rav- ages of environmental pollution, are acceptable to many people because

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38 CONSERVATION OF HISTORIC STONE BUILDINGS they carry connotations of permanency and character. There may be an inclination in some sections of management to make the objective of their maintenance programs the retention of a "brand-new" ap- pearance, but a preventive maintenance program that would provide the required level of utility while assuring an acceptable level of phys- ical conservation of the facility is more desirable. And that goal is obtainable without eliminating symbolic significance. Visitors to Disneyland are impressed by the high level of cleanliness, freshness, and newness that is maintained. But Disneyland is a fan- tasyland that exists outside of time and outside of any context other than its own. Williamsburg, in spite of its seasonal programs and daily activities superimposed to attain "living history," is a re-creation, an extended exhibit, an artificial time-island; and, although with greater decorum, it is, like Disneyland, a place of escape. Williamsburg is also a place for the interpretation of history and culture, which brings to mind a problem faced in the management of original historical or cultural properties: If deterioration, damage, or other deficiencies re- quire the replacement of fabric, to what extent can aesthetic appear- ance and historical character be compromised without losing the in- tegrity of the experience for the user? Limited wear or weathering may be acceptable, even construed as a positive contribution, but the more insidious and damaging influence of pollution wiD produce essentially negative effects in the surface appearance and, ultimately, in the structural substance. The effects of weathering and pollution may be treated after the fact by repair, res- toration, or replacement. But as good practice in conservation and in view of the pervasive nature of those effect~it makes sense to practice prevention. Given unavoidable hostile climatic conditions and Inn desirable ad- verse environmental factors, the early (if not initial) cautious use of protective coatings might be the only realistic means of delaying even- tual (if not inevitable) deterioration. Such practices require careful se- lection and continuing attention, analysis, and evaluation. Sensible planning, design, and specification can be the best treatments against weathering and pollution. Planning should be comprehensive and take into account the antic- ipated results of various orientations and exposures, accessibility to flora and fauna, and potential impacts from existing and proposed elements in the environment. The monitoring, analysis, and correction of pollution-caused environmental conditions is a Tong-range process, one that may have greater value as categorical information then im- mediate applicability as specific data.

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Preservation Problems and Treatmentsin Washington,D.C. 39 FIGURE 2 The marble statute of Benjamin Franklin by Jacques Jouvenal (1889J at 12th Street and Permsylvania Avenue, N.W., shows weathering effects, particularly on fingers of the left hand.

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40 CONSERVATION OF HISTORIC STONE BUILDINGS IMPACTS: ANIMAL, VEGETABLE, MINERAL .. ~ .... ~ . ... .. . . . .. . . . Masonry structures are more vulnerable than most people realize. A1- though their very reason for being derives from a myth of invuinera- bility, they suffer in many ways. To categorize the sources of the suffering as animal, vegetable, or mineral may be more convenient than scientific. By extension these categories could conceivably ac- commodate such exotic damaging phenomena as earthquakes, wars, and floods. Mineral impacts have been implied in the discussion of staining through runoff and leaching from adjacent noncompatible materials. Some mineral deposits in the form of graffiti {unauthorized) or graphics (authorized) appear on masonry; but, strictly speaking, the agent of application is animal "human). Vegetable impacts are familiar and frequent, ranging from micro- cosmic mosses to clinging vines to unplanned hanging gardens growing out of convenient cracks and crevices in our buildings and monuments. They might be tanned-the permanent problem plant community. There are also transitory problems, such as seasonal deposits of debris anc] damage from the rising roots or falling limbs of trees. FIGURE 3 lateral Revenue Service Building at 12th Street and Constitution Avenue, N.W. Architect: Louis Simon t1928-36J. Birds may be the most ubiquitous of animal pests.

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Preservation Problems and Treatments in Washington, D.C. 41 FIGURE 4 We Federal Building {Dept. of the Post Office Bldg.) Sculptor: A. A. Wein- man? 1934?. Esthetic effects of antipest devices may be counterproductive. Animal impacts are probably the most varied and the most dam- ag~ng. Birds are among the major offenders. They manage to roost on the newer, more streamlined buildings almost as wed as they do on the older, more highly ornamented ones. Their ability to adopt any kind of structure as a toilet facility seems unlimited. Their droppings are more than a nuisance; they are a known source of at least two potentially fatal diseases: histoplasmosis from a fungus and meningitis from a bacterium. The residues from their acid-laden droppings, their nests, and even their corpses all pose problems in the operation and maintenance of buildings and monuments. Many treatments have been tried: electrical (high-voltage wires, light rays), chemical ""hotfoot"

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42 CONSERVATION OI BIONIC STONE BUILDINCS not 5 Justice Dep=~t Bag at Pe~sylv~a awe ad log Street, N.W. Detect: Bode, Weds ad Or (193471. E~e~mt DI ~s=~ed-~ten~ce methods, as ~ d above, m~ produce ~deshable, ldng-last~ eRects.

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Preservation Problems and Treatments in Washington, D.C. 43 compounds, poisonous or contraceptive feeds), physical Iwire mesh, spikes, slap ted boards, sticky compounds), auditory (ultrasonic and sonic alarms, intermittent explosions!, predatory (falcons, snipers, traps anything that Mao could devise. Although birds, rodents and other quadrupeds, insects, even micro- zoa all take their toll, mankind in his enlightenment is most unkind. Man's offenses are often vicious. The normal wear and tear of traffic and toil is to be expected, but malicious mischief, vandalism, and waste in the use of our resources are shameful and cannot be excused. For that matter, there is no real basis for excusing ignorance, disregard, or neglect in the management of our resources, either. If those animals of the supposedly highest order of intelligence and trust (us) cannot govern themselves in the management of their own common property, then the problems transcend the rather limited concerns of bird drop- pings and freeze-thaw cycles. CORRECTIVE MEASURES AND COMPOUNDED PROBLEMS There is always a danger that when a problem is treated, an unnntic- ipated reaction may result. Sometimes the cure is worse than the condition, or perhaps if it does cure one condition, it may lead to an entirely new set of undesirable conditions. That is one of the real dangers when we deal with problems that frequently come from old and indeterminate origins, and when we propose treatments that have not been proved. Sometimes there is no choice, but many times un- ~inking adherence to inapplicable procedures, regulations or ~ne.~.i- fications results in counterproduction. <~ ~ ~ ~TV ~ ~ v_ ~ Although deriving from a desire to protect what we have, authori- t~arian attitudes and dogmatic approaches can be detrimental. For in- stance, rigid interpretation of legalistic regulations would deny his- torical status to buildings less than 50 years old, although it is obvious that some buildings or monuments are historic before they leave the drawing board. Regulations could also impose a life sentence in the literal sense wherein the existing object must remain in an unmodified condition, much like the "living dead" hospital patient tied to a cum- bersome, expensive, and restrictive life-support system. A positive attitude should permit a variety of approaches in the solution. of problems and should also admit the inevitability of change arid the end results of life cycles. The application of common sense and reason to problem-solving situations should provide parameters for the application of technology and limits on the expenditure of

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44 CONSERVATION OF HISTORIC STONE BUILDINGS FIGURE 6 lateral Revenue Service Building at 12th Street and Constitution Avenue, N.W. Architect: Louis Simon {1928-36~. Unanticipated uses and inadequate detailing produce damaging impacts on limestone and granite arrises. resources. Intelligent and innovative management of historic buildings and monuments should provide opportunities to make decisions in this city of decision makersthis city, which itself was determined and designed by the conscious decisions of political leaders, techni- cinns, and public servants, many of them seekers after truth and beauty, among other things.

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Preservation Problems and Treatments in Washington, D.C. ,: ~~.~ :-: ~~ ~~: ~~ ~~ ~~ ~j 4: _ : ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~'~':~ _ ;~.U I ~ i.. .l~. ~ ~ I I I ~ ~ ~ : ~ ~~ Ma >@ ~ I :~y?.; ~ ~ ~~_~ 1 [IGURE 7 National Gallery of Art, East Wing Addition, at 4th Street and Washington Mall, N.W. Architect: Ioh Ming Pei {1979~. Irresistible tactile attraction of sharp arris results in staining, mortar loss, and deterioration of marble at corners of affected blocks. 45

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46 CONCLUSIONS CONSERVATION OP HISTORIC STONE BUILDINGS I should like to dispel any notion that I have proposed that doing nothing is the recommended form of treatment for problems. Doing nothing is simply an a~Tnission that treatment is not preferred or not possible, for whatever reasons. But benign neglect apparently has pos- itive possibilities, too. In the American Institute of Architects' Guicie to the Architecture of Washington, D.C., the authors say, "The Logan Circle is a good example of the fact that neglect is often the handmaiden of preser- vation. This is an eight block area of virtually unchanged large, late- nineteenth-cen~y Victorian and Richardsoninn houses focusing on the Circle itself. Nearly all were constructed during the twenty-five- year period between 1875 and 1900 as the homes of the prominent and wealthy. By the mid-eighteen-nineties taste had shifted and the Dupont Circle area had become the fashionable district, but, almost incredibly, only three of the original houses on the Circle have been demolished in the twentieth century" (19741. So here is an instance of conservation by happy accident. If one possible definition of conservation is the mean between the extremes of complete replacement and complete loss of historic build- ings and monuments, let us hope that in Washington we can practice it by constant observation, problem identification, research, invention and adaptation, plaruiirlg and design, and inspection and evaluation. This conference, in its scope and its subjects, constitutes a commend- able exercise toward making that practice perfect.

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48 CONSERVATION OF HISTORIC STONE BUILDINGS * M. ~3. * ~ -~. ~ A- ~~ 0 ~ j~,9~3CO4~ E~~ ;<,~n~ JO ~ ~nOnnnn rat ID rat ~` new ~~ V' BENT ITS"a>< l Z S C 0~ AT T V T I ~~ ~ , _ _ ~ o ~ -o r * ZOO 2 ~ Hi- ~ 1~: '',--~,^-~; r4~1~.~-r'"~',2 ~ AVC~ on H*~.S ' ' ~ ~ o - . ~..e 1, UhT. A"DR - 1 ~ ~le~ces Co~S1I~UT10" ^ ~T - ~)-21~1L~ - 2, Ll AC=LN h`~ - ORI *L T~ ~ ~~' ~ ~csr ~ 3. . ~ ~0 Rl hL I5R. I D~E P - r.~= =~ - ~1 ~ D ~ ~ "~0~ ~^oR.I^L 4. ~VE '1 VE oF H 1; RO i~ 5 VIR~rI,ll. SIOo, ax, - ~s.O~ Of mC _RI ~ ~ aRl D6-G 5. TH~ pl5cU5 1~WEQ s~vG ~ .1 K - ~1 P^= IC ~ 21ST ~ `/1R~41HIh^V ,~ - 6. c^7lTou ~e 5~Tu"5 l6. ~.T~n.~ ~V.G '7- ~ ~ ~ ' 14. 1. C~5T I ~ VTIoN H~ L.L~ ~a~ ~ c *~ - c~s, ~v' S. 0~D ~X~COTIVE OFFICEs 17~5~,NVJ- P^. r. vA. AvR~>cs 9 0~WICK 4ALLE-~.y 19. 17~S1' P^.~E,~ - 10. WHITe Hous~ '6- s~r ~ r^. ^~. "- I 1. VETER^N 5 ADt~l H. ~LD~. vaR~o"T ~V.,, ~ T ! SlS,~w 12. wA5ldlil6~lo~ I~OliU~EI~l ~ ~ e ,.~ S~ - T t3. AVDITORS COMPLEx (~9 sV~. F ~. ~ ~V4) I4~ ~ C SYR"~", 5w 4~,,Gr - ~T hAE tAoRi ~ L TI4R b`^LL, ~.r aMD lE C~`PI TOL . - ~, .~*T .~o ~510~ BUlLDIN~ `~ 5~, F ~ ~ s~, - - 17. OLD Pp.~T OFFICE 7~., 9~-, ~ ~ ~ ~7~T~,~w 8. T^KIFF COA~~~~ s~9. 7'.,8~, E ~ F s~;~s, - u ~pa ~ L6Q~JC>R S.T$zG (o"P ~o~ ~. ~lC ~) 7 - sT ~ ~.AVR'N~ 23. 25: 2~. F~ I B..J. ~D I ~I Gr '-,,0~, ~ -5 ~ r^. ^~ . ~- 4 a~R ~5 Ne^R~y 2.1. -! USTI C~ ~ P1. I~LD4 , ~a~ S:rs,~ PA.~~C.,Hv,l ~, ~. FR~ ~ ~L) ~ ~G t~ - ~ ~ pA. ~., M~ OL~ PO51 OFFICE |~ - ~ ~ PH, Av - , HW 2~. \bJ I LLA RD HoT~L 14 - ST ~ - . ~., M ALtJIAS "rEMpL. ~ 5T,~a IlT~` 14 - ,i~VJ 26. .6 ~hN Cl~E ~V ~TRO STATlONS: ~1 1 ~ F~Y Bo1To" M2e F~crar W~s, ~3. F^~VT - ~e SA ~ ~ ~ O L 1~4 ~ DV Po ~7 ~^U): U ~ l O Cl RC~CE '1 S1~1 I O r~ M5=McPH~oH ~11. JU~lcl^R' S~V^~ SQU9.RIE 2T RO ~~- ~~ ~ ~ Qy ce "~ R ~= C