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APPENDS: Proposal for a CCMS Pilot Study on the Conservation/ Restoration of Monuments The term "monument" as used in this document includes all struc- tures together with their settings and pertinent fixtures and con- tents that are of value from the historical, artistic, architectural, sci- entific, or ethnological point of view. This definition includes works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings, and combinations of such features. I. INTRODUCTION Historic and artistic monuments represent the single most visible as- pect of our history and culture. These monuments, mostly of stone construction, are universally threatened by the effects of pollution, urbanization, and public access, as well as by weathering cycles and other natural phenomena. Though there is national and international activity in the preservation of individual monuments, there is obvious need for increased cooperation among all those concerned with the development and implementation of national preservation plans. II. ROLE OF CCMS CCMS countries have a great concentration of stone monuments of varying degrees of antiquity, from the caves of Lascaux to the great 341
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342 Appendix monuments of ancient Greece and Rome, medieval cathedrals, ren- aissance architecture, and ultimately buildings of our century. Mary of these threatened monuments have been treated in various CCMS countries under conditions of limited control. With its ability to fa- cilitate international collaboration, CCMS COW]] serve as a mechanism for developing uniform methods of reporting, for coordinating national research efforts, and for developing recommendations for treatment of monuments. These efforts would lead to the establishment of a general approach and would not be concerned with their application to specific monuments. III. OVERALL PURPOSE A. To enhance participating nations' abilities to minimize adverse environmental effects on monuments. B. To develop options for governmental action to enhance conser- vation/restoration programs. C. To serve as a mode! for international cooperation in the pres- ervation of cultural property. IV. STATE OF THE WORK There are conservation and restoration projects under way at the local and national level in practically every Coventry. Private institutions and museums are also involved in this type of work. Excluding the prob- lems posed by purposeful human actions such as demolition, land development, and vandalism, monuments of value are most often dam- aged or lost due to the effects of air pollution, undermining and sub- sidence, and excessive vibration. In many cases, actions to restore or clean monuments have proved to have deleterious side effects. After conducting the research necessary to diagnose the causes of deterioration, the techniques of conservation/restoration include: A. In situ protection This covers methods that attempt to protect the monument in place. This is attempted through surface treatments or enclosures that seek to protect the monument from pollution or other hawk agents. B. Reduction or elimination of causes of damage In some situa- tions it may be possible to take such measures as reducing sulfur emissions or rerouting heavy traffic, rather than deal only with the resulting damage.
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Appendix 343 C. Relocation 1h some cases it may be necessary to remove the monument or certain elements of the structure from the original lo- cation to a site where they can be protected. D. Periodic restoration Where other methods cannot be applied, it may be necessary to accept darnage and to deal with it by periodically restoring the monument. V. PROVISIONAL STUDY OBJECTIVES oafs. The priorities in this list will be set at the experts' meeting: A. To survey the state of the art of conservation/restoration meth- B. To identify and develop uniform methods for-evaluating treat- ments for such doings as appearance, effectiveness, stability, reversi- bility, safety to associated building components, safety to workers, and economic feasibility. C. To develop methods for the measurement of rates of deterioration and to determine mechanisms of deterioration leading to an under- standing of the physical, chemical, and biological processes involved. D. To develop recommendations for the maintenance of monu- ments. Within the context of the overall treatment these maintenance procedures could include repainting, cleaning, protection against bi- ological attack, and isolation from groundwater. E. If appropriate, the participating countries may undertake the study in depth of archetypal monuments as demonstration projects. VI. WORK PLAN The above activities fall into two types of study: research and docu- mentation. The documentation projects should be completed by the end of the three-year period for the pilot study. The research initiatives should continue under the sponsorship of the individual participating nations. The uniform methods of reporting and cooperation developed in the course of the project may assure the successful coordination of these long-term projects. A. Analysis and Recommendations for Action Under this task, lead countries would analyze the information collected as a result of the conferences. Recommendations would be prepared, presumably in- cluding guidelines for national programs in conservation/restoration. Possible demonstrations would be identified. Long-term projects such as the following would be initiated:
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344 Appendix 1. The design of suitable air pollution monitoring equipment and networks. 2. The design of a series of test walls in representative locations. These test walls composed of various treated and untreated stones would be exposed to typical environments: a. to develop criteria for monitoring deterioration of the test wads; b. to correlate the physical and chemical changes with air pol- lution data; c. to correlate data from such in situ testing with laboratory data. B. Documentation Under this task a set of meetings would be con- vened to develop: 1. A census of treated monuments to permit an objective evaluation of empirical once scientifically controlled treatments. 2. An archive of literature on treatments and materials used in treat- ments. 3. The exchange of information on continuing research and treat- ment projects. rials. 4. Uniform methods of reporting treatment procedures and mate- 5. Methods of regular reporting of the microclimates for individual monuments. 6. Models of monument microclimates. 7. Uniform methods for reporting the conditions of monuments by using techniques such as measured drawings, photogrammetry, and holography. VII. RESOURCE ORGANIZATIONS In carrying out the study, experts will work with data and material available from appropriate national organizations, both public and pri- vate, as well as such international organizations as: A. International Council of Monuments and Sites (1COMOS} B. International Council of Museums ([COM~ C. International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Res- toration of Cultural Property, Rome ~ICCROM) D. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organiza- tion (UNESCO) E. Reunion Intemationale des Laboratoires d'Essais et de Recherche sur les Materiaux et les Constructions (RILEM)
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Appendix F. International Engineering and Geological Societies. G. Comite de la Pierre (ICOM, ICOMOS, ICCROM, THEME 345 VIII. PARTICIPATION BY NON-NATO NATIONS In view of the universality of the problem to be dealt with in this study, appropriate non-NATO nations would be invited to participate, provided permission were granted by way of the usual procedure. IX. PROTECT AS MODEL Many problems in the preservation of our cultural heritage would benefit greatly from the CCMS approach to international cooperation. The successful implementation of the Pilot Study on the Conservation/ Restoration of Monuments could serve as a model for similar projects dealing with such problems as: A. The preservation, in situ, of stained glass. B. The improvement of museum and historical site security. C. The protection of archeological sites. D. The development of standards for the museum environment. E. The development of standards for the protection of works of art in exchange programs. F. The preservation of library and archival materials. G. The preservation of ethnographic materials.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: