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Index absorption {see initial rate of absorption of brick) accelerated laboratory tests Isee laboratory tests and testing) acid cleaners for stone surfaces, 276 acid rain adverse effects, 183 chemistry of rain, 184, 191-193 dissolution of stone, 114 limestone, 184 marble, 164 Isee also rain) acidic solutions dissolution of brick, 157 dissolution of stone, 121 hydrofluoric acid, 157, 276, 298 sulfuric acid, 19, 157 acrylics, 287 copolymers, 302 polymers, 301-302 adaptive reuse of buildings, 29-30 aerial vs. terrestrial photogrammetry, 25(}253 Isee also photograrnmetry) aerosols, measurement for stone preservation application, 198, 205, 20~209 (see also air pollutants) aggregation properties of building stone density, 65 permeability, 66, 68 physical models, 69-71 porosity, 65-66 ranges of values, 64 ALA {see American Institute of ArchitectsJ air-abrasive cleaning techniques Isee sandblasting) air conditioning, masonry building deterioration, 211 air-entraining agents with mortar, lSl- 152 air-monitoring stations, 4 See also monitoring air pollutants air concentrations, 193-194, 195 data availability, 203 dissolution by acidic substances, 121 gaseous, 199, 205, 208 monitoring equipment and networks, 343 sulfur dioxide deposition, 185 wet and dry surface deposition, 4, 5, 183-196 Isee also acid rain; aerosols; pollutants) Alcoa Foundation, 11 347

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348 alkali cleaners, 276 feldspars, 52 silicates, 14, 293-295 alkaline earth hydroxides, 293, 295-297 alkoxysilanes chemistry, 298-299 coating material, 161 performance, 299-300 stone consolidant, 287, 299-300 uses and developments, 298 {see also Brethane) American Institute of Architects Guide to the Architecture of Washington, D.C., 46 stone conservation standards, 8 structural distress diagnosis, 5 American Society for Testing and Materials brick, initial rate of absorption VIRAL, 151 building materials service life standard E632, 287, 289-290, 292, 294, 306-307 Building Preservation and Rehabilitation Technology, Subcommittee on, 8 building stone, specifications, 79 dimension stone, ASTM standard definition, 51 greenstone, ASTM standard definition, 53 limestone, ASTM standard definition, 51-52 marble, ASTM standard definition, 53 Powder Diffraction File, 169 sandstone, ASTM standard definition, 52 slate, ASTM standard definition, 53 Stone, Committee on, 8 stone conservation standards, 8 testing procedures standards, 16 American Society of Civil Engineers structural distress diagnosis, 5 andesite, 64, 80 animal impacts, masonry structures, 40, 41, 43 anisotropy, 63, 71 antioxidants, 324, 325 Appalachian Crystalline Province, 56-57 Index APT [see Association for Preservation Technology) archeometry, 14 architectural conservation See conservation; monuments, conservation; stone, conservation) architectural photogrammetry Isee photogrammetry) "The Arts of War: Sacrifice" {sculpture), staining effects, 37 ASCE {see American Society of Civil Engineers) Association for Preservation Technology building maintenance training programs, 282 scientific advisory committees, 10 stone conservation standards, 8 structural distress diagnosis, 5 ASTM {see American Society for Testing and Materials) Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Province, 49, 55, 56 atmospheric factors in stone decay, measurement methods, 10~109 atmospheric pollutants {see aerosols; air pollutants; pollutants) atomic absorption, 163 Auger electrons, 165-166, 170, 172, 174- 175 Auger spectroscopy, 174 barium hydroxide, 296-297 basalt, 53, 64, 81 bearing walls, 214 cavity bearing walls, 215-217 Benjamin Franklin (statue), weathering effects, 39 biological agents, role in stone deterioration, 5 bird impacts on masonry structures, 43 Federal Building, Washington, D.C., 41 Internal Revenue Service Building, Washington, D.C., 40 "black granite," 53 black mica, rate of decay, 115 bond strength brick, 151-152, 154-155 function of physical and chemical alteration, 165

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Index stone eonsolidants, 315-317 stone materials, 164 Bragg's law, 167, 168 Brethane, 278, 298, 299 See also alkoxysilanes) brick aging mechanisms, 149-150 air-abrasive cleaning techniques, 275 bond strength, 151, 152, 154, 155 capillary flow, 151 ehernieal attack, 157 cleaning procedures, 159-160 coloration, 147-148 deterioration mismatch of materials, 159 resistance, 14~162 discoloration from cleaning agents, 160 durability pore-size distribution, 152 saturation Coefficient, 152, 155 extruded, 148, 152, 155 extrusion equipment, 147 fired, chemical agent resistance, 157 firing, 147, 148 freeze-thaw eyele, 151-156 initial rate of absorption, 149, 151, 155 kilns, 147 manufacturing methods, 146-148 moisture expansion, 145, 157 molded, 148 permeability, 151 pore structure, 152 porosity, 152 pressed, 147, 152 properties of, 145-146 raw materials, 146 salt crystallization, 120, 156-157 sandblasting, 175 selection criteria for building use, 213 shaping, 146-147, 148 silicone treatment, 277 staining, 157 washing, 273-274 weathering performance, 213 Isee also brick structures; masonry deterioration} Brick Institute, 11 brick structures design defects, 211 durability, 150 349 restoration procedures, 146 stain resistance, 150 water penetration resistance, 150 Isee also brick; masonry) bridges, structural distress diagnosis, 5 "brittle" failure, 89 Brownian diffusion, 185-189, 202 brownstone, 52 building failures diagnosis of problems, 212 documentation, 230 building maintenance See maintenance) building practices, 212 research needs, 230 Building Preservation and Rehabilitation Technology, Subcommittee of American Society of Testing and Materials, 8 building stone aggregation properties, 64-71 ASTM specifications, 79 ASTM standard E632, 287, 289-290, 292, 294, 306-307 capillary flow, 70-71 characteristics of value, 50 color, 77 conservation of natural resource, 60 density, 64, 65 elasticity, 71-72, 76 electrical properties, 63, 78-79 foreign sources, 58 geologic description, 51 geologic sources, 49-61 hardness, 75-76 integrity, loss of, 287 inventory of use, 2-3 lithologie provinces, 55-58 magnetic properties, 63-79 mechanical properties, 63, 64, 7~77 national inventory, 3 optical properties, 63, 77-78 permeability, 62 physical properties, 62-86 measurement, 333 porosity, 62 selection criteria, 79, 213 service life degradation factors, 291, 292 susceptibility to stone deterioration, 84

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350 thermal properties, 63, 64, 71-75 types, 51-54 U.S. production, 54 U.S. sources, 54-58 Washington, D.C., monuments, catalog of, 2 weathering, 287 Isee also dimension stone; stone) calcite cement, 82 deformation behavior, 90 veins in serpentinite, 83 calcium chloride, mortar decay, 157 hydroxide, 295-296 capillary flow brick, 151 building stone, 70-71 ground moisture, 111 salt-deposition experiments, 134-135, 138-139 surface solutions, 124-125 (see also Poiseuille flow) Capitol Building {see U.S. Capitol Building) capstone, 223 carbonate rocks, moisture deterioration, 108, 110-111 Isee also dolomite; limestone; marbled cathodolumineseenee analyses, 173 cavity bearing walls, 214-217 CCMS Isee North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Committee on the Challenges of Modem Society) cements for sandstone, 82 Census of Treated Monuments, vii, 7, 8, 9 Central-Interior Sedimentary Basins, 56, 57 chalcedony, transmittance and reflectance of light, 77 Challenges to Modem Society, Committee on See North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Committee on Challenges- to Modern Society) chemical cleaning brick masonry walls, 159-160 stone surfaces, 275-276 : folder clay minerals brick raw material, 146 cement, 82 permeability, 66, 68-69 spectra by reflectance radiometry, 177, 178 cleaning stone surfaces air-abrasive techniques, 274-275 brick masonry walls, 159-160 chemical cleaning, 159, 160, 275-276 historic buildings, 272-280 lime-based treatments, 277-278, 331 mechanical cleaning, 274 methods, 7 poultice techniques, 276-277 salt crystallization problem, 157 sandblasting, 273, 274-275 steam cleaning, 274 washing, 273-274 {see also treatment of stone) Cleopatra's Needle, London, wax treatment of stone surface, 304- 305 climatic conditions conservation interventions, 27 protective coatings, 38 stone deterioration, 197-210 coatings criteria for, 7 deterioration delay, 38 hydrophobic materials, 20 polymer composites, 312-321 studies of uses, 161 synthetic polymers, 322-328 waterproof, 20, 145, 158, 277 (see also acrylics; alkoxysilanes; spelling; stone preservatives; treatment of stone) color brick, 147-148 optical property of building stone, 77 weathering indicator, 77 Isee also discoloration; staining) Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems {see National Materials Advisory Board) Committee on Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments {see National Materials Advisory Board) Committee on the Challenges of Modern

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Index Society {see North Atlantic Treaty Organization) compressive strength of rock, 76, 87, 102, 104-106 concrete, crystallization phenomena, 120 condensation reactions curtain wall construction, 230-231 deposition of pollutants, 189-190 renovated buildings, 231 synthetic polymers, 323-324 Isee also moisture; Stefan flow; water penetration) conservation antiquities, 13 application of science, 13-14 architectural, 22, 23 cultural property, 22-30 definition, 46 ethics, 25 failures, 13 history, 13-14 interdisciplinary work requirement, 16 interventions, 25 climatic conditions, 27 consolidation, 27-29 degrees of, 27-30 deterioration prevention, 27, 28 documentation, 26-27 inventories, 26 preparatory procedures, 26 preservation, 27, 28 principles of, 22-30 reconstruction, 27, 30 rehabilitation, 27, 29-30 reproduction, 27, 30 restoration, 27, 29 laboratories, 272 methodology, 23 natural resources, building stone, 60 policy, 17, 20, 22, 338-339 practical, 14, 15 principles of, 22-30 processes, 15, 20 scientist's attitude, 15-16 technologists, 14, 16-18 technology, 1~15 (see also monuments, conservation; stone conservation; stone preservatives; treatment of stone) Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments, Committee on 351 conference, 1-2 members and staff, iii-iv report, 1-12 conservators, 18 architectural, 23 relationship with scientists, 15, 16 consolidation, cultural property, 27, 28- 29 Isee also stone consolidation) construction industry, role in maintenance of historic structures, 281-286 Isee also maintenance) control points, photogrammetry, 248, 250 coping {see capstone) cornices, 223-227 Cor-Ten, staining problems, 36 coupling agents, choice of, 315 (see also organosilane coupling agents) cracks in rock, effect on compressibility, 92-94 deformation, 92-95 elasticity, 91-93 crystalline rock Isee marble) crystallization {see salt crystallization test; salt decay, crystallization phenomena) cultural property climatic conditions and conservation treatments, 27 conservation, principles of, 22-30 deterioration prevention, 27, 28 documentation of conservation interventions, 26-27 inventories, 26 preservation, 27, 28 values, 23-24, 27 Isee also historic structures; monuments) curtain walls, 217-222 moisture condensation problems, 230- 231 DAMHB isee Directorate of Ancient Monuments and Historic Buildings) Darcy's law, 66 decay of stone {see stone deterioration) deformation of rock, 87-91, 10~107

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352 cracks, 100 pores, 92-95 temperature, 95-97 water effects, 95-97 (see also fracture of rock) density measurement of rock, 6, 64-65 deposition of air pollutants, 183-210 See also acid rain; air pollutants; pollutants; salt crystallization) deterioration {see brick, deterioration; masonry, deterioration mechanisms; stone deterioration) deviatoric stress, 89, 95 diagnosis (see moisture diagnosis; stone deterioration, diagnosis) diffusivity Brownian, 185-189, 202 evaporation by, 122-124 rate of, 122, 124 thermal inertia and, 75 digitized photogrammetric data uses reconstruction, 26~263, 269-271 structural analysis, 271 dimension stone, 50 definition, ASTM standard, 51 foreign sources, 58 market, 2 quarries, 2 testing methods, 60 U.S. Bureau of Mines market studies, 2-3 U.S. production, 49, 54 weathering effects, 2 weathering tests and testing standards, 4 Directorate of Ancient Monuments and Historic Buildings, Research and Technical Advisory Service, 272 discoloration brick, from cleaning agents, 160 masonry, 36 poly {vinyl chloride), 323 See also color, staining) dissolution, 113-115 cementing materials, 287 limestone, 164 marble, 164 stone materials, 163 District of Columbia Isee Washington, D.C.) Index documentation building failures, 230 CCMS pilot study projects, 343 conservation interventions, 26-27 maintenance of stone methods, 8 masonry structure evaluation, 239 materials suppliers, listing of, 7 materials used, 7 mechanisms of deterioration, 8 methods used, 7 requirements for registered monuments, 7 stone consolidant use, 305 treatments, 7, 9, 344 dolomite, moisture deterioration, 108 downspouts, 225 dry deposition of air pollutants, 183-196 classification of mechanisms, 202 "ductile" fracture, 89 EDM See electronic distance measurement) educational and information services, 10 effective stress {see "law of effective stress") efflorescence, 36, 108, 111, 120, 122, 150, 157, 200, 274, 293 elasticity of rock crack and pore effects, 91-95 stress-strain curve, 87-89 temperature effects, 71-72, 76 Isee also Young's modulus of elasticity) electrical conductivity, moisture diagnosis, 6 electrical properties, building stone, 7 79 electron microprobe, 163, 17(}173 electron microscopy, 163 electron spectroscopy-chemical analysis, 163, 166, 174-176 electronic distance measurement, 264, 267 energy-dispersive systems, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, 167- 168 engineering and art, 255-259 Environmental Protection Agency funding for interdisciplinary research, 11

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index Particulate Mineralogy Unit, 59 preservation of stone monuments meeting {Sept. 28, 19781, vii epoxies, 287, 300, 303-304, 313, 317-320 ESCA (see electron spectroscopy- chemical analysis) ethics for conservation treatments, 25 evaporation by diffusion, 122-124, 189- 190, 202 extruded brick, 148, 152, 155 extrusion equipment, 147 Federal Building, Washington, D.C., 41 feldspars, 52-53 decomposition models, 164 rate of decay, 115 Fick's first law, 122, 133, 142 field data, importance, 8 Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, dissolution of marble columns, 113, 114 flashing, water penetration, 150, 158- 159, 160, 225-226 fluorocarbons, coating material, 161 fluosilicates in stone conservation, 14 fog measurement, stone preservation application, 204, 206 foundations, moisture damage to masonry, 229-230 fracture of rock, 87-107 (see also "brittle" failure; "ductile" fracture; microfractures) freeze-thaw cycle brick, 151-156 masonry deterioration, 121, 145 stone deterioration, 4, 5, 73 stone preservative freezing tests, 333 friability of rock, 77 funding for research of conservation and preservation of monuments, 10-11 gabbro, 64 gaseous air pollutants, measurement for stone preservation applications, 206, 208 geologic sources, building stone, 49-61 geophysical loads, stone structures, 5 Georgia, building stone production, 49, 54 353 geotechnical loads, stone structures, 5 grafitti, 40, 42 grain density, 65 granite, 80 blisters on stone surfaces, 141 compressibility, 93 definition, ASTM standard, 52-53 fracture strength, 97-99, 101 physical properties, 64 salt decay, 141 scaling, 11 7-1 1 8 spelling, 118 thermal cracking, 96 U.S. production, 49 volumetric strain-pressure curve, 90, 91 gravity loads, stone structures, 5 Greek stone architecture, 49, 50, 51 greenstone, ASTM standard definition, 53 Griffith's theory, fracture strength of rock, 97, 100, 10~105 grit blasting {see sandblasting) ground moisture See moisture diagnosis) ground-penetration radar, treatment evaluation method, 9 grout repair, stone surfaces, 279 Guide to the Architecture of Washington, D.C., 46 gutters, 111-112, 225, 227 hardness brick, 160 Mobs' scale for minerals, 64, 75-76 health hazards, chemical cleaning, 276 Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, Census of Treated Monuments, vii high-rise buildings, deterioration problems, 230 historic buildings See historic structures mon intents) . . . :ustonc preservation education, 10 policy and planning, 11-12 scientist's role, 1~21 stone conservation standards, 8 structures, 235 university curricula recommendations, 10

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354 {see also monuments, preservation; preservation, cultural property) historic site reconstruction, 260-263, 269-271 . . . :ustonc structures cleaning, 272-280 integrity of the fabric, 243 maintenance, 272-280 preventive, 281-286 training programs, 282, 283 nonstructural problems diagnosis, 211- 232 photogrammetric measurement and monitoring, 242-271 preservation, 235 restoration, 235 structural integrity diagnosis, 233-241 surface repair, 272-280 Isee also monuments) holography, 268-269 honeycombs on sandstone, 108' 111, 115 Hooke's law, application to stres~strain curve, 87 hornblende, tremolite, 115-116 human impacts, masonry structure deterioration, 43 humidity gradient, historic structures, 3 humidity measurement, stone preservation applications, 204, 206-207 hydrofluoric acid chemical attack on brick, 157 cleaning agent for stone surfaces, 276 stone consolidant, 298 hydrolysis, 164, 323, 324 hydrophobic coating materials, 20 See also coatings; waterproof coatings) hydrostatic stresses, 89 hydroxides, stone consolidant, 295-297 hysteresis loop, 87, 88, 90 ICCROM See Intemational Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property, Rome) ice, pressure-temperature relations in rock, 73, 74 isee also freeze-thaw cycle) ICOM {see Intemational Council of Museums) Index ICOMOS {see Intemational Council of Monuments and Sites) igneous rocks, 51 permeability research, lack of, 66 porosity, 65 isee also andesite; basalt; granite; rhyolite) Indiana, building stone production, 49, 54 infrared scanner, 6 initial rate of absorption of brick, 149, 151, 152, 155 inorganic stone consolidants, 287, 291, 298 alkaline earth hydroxides, 293, 295 alkali silicates, 293, 295 barium hydroxides, 296-297 calcium hydroxide, 295-296 siliceous consolidants, 293 silicofluorides, 295 strontium hydroxides, 29~297 (see also stone consolidants) in situ protection of monuments, 342 See also coatings; maintenance of stone structures; stone preservatives; treatment of stone) insulation See thermal insulation) integrity of historic structures, definition, 243 interdisciplinary research funding, 10-11 interdisciplinary work, conservation requirements, 16 intergranular bonds, 287-289 Internal Revenue Service Building, Washington, D.C. bird pest effects, 40 stone deterioration, 44 Intemational Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property, Rome, 344 Intemational Council on Monuments and Sites, 10, 344 Intemational Council of Museums, 344 Intemational Standards Organization, stone conservation standards, 8 Intemational Union of Testing and Research Laboratories {RILEM) nondestructive tests for treatment evaluations, 9, 10 role in CCMS Pilot Study, 344 stone conservation standards, 8

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Index stone testing methods, 336 testing procedures standards, 16 interventions {see conservation, interventions) inventories building stone use, 3 cultural property, 26 dimension stone, U.S. Bureau of Mines, 2-3 U.S. Public Building Services Inventory, 31 IRA {see initial rate of absorption) ISO See International Standards Organizations Justice Department Building, Washington, D. C., grafitti removal, 42 kilns, brick manufacture, 47 Kozeny formula, 70 laboratories conservation, 272 Prevention Deterioration Center, 11 stone preservation, 11 laboratory tests and testing, 9 accelerated aging chambers, stone preservative evaluation, 332, 334- 335 accelerated tests for prediction of service life of building materials, ASTM standard E632, 287, 289- 290, 292, 294, 306-307, 332 building stone deterioration, 84-85 physical properties measurement, 84 salt-deposition experiments, 127-140 treatment evaluation, problems with, 8 Lake Superior Crystalline Province, 56, 58 Laplace equation, pore equilibrium pressure difference, 124, 125 Laplace radius, effective pore radius, 135, 138, 139 laser technology (see holography) "law of effective stress," 101, 102 355 leaking (see flashing; gutters; roofs; water, penetration) library of stone samples, 3 lime-based treatments, 277-278 evaluation, 331 limestone, 83 acidic air pollutant protection, 335 air abrasive cleaning techniques, 275 definition, ASTM standard, 51-52 dissolution by acidic waters, 164 hydrofluosilicic acid reaction, 295 moisture deterioration, 108 physical properties, 64 silicofluoride reaction, 295 U.S. production, 49 washing as cleaning technique, 273- 274 See also travertine) limewater isee calcium hydroxide) limonite, cement, 82 lintels bending strength tests, 333 stone deterioration problem area, 227- 229 lithologic provinces, 55-58 load-carrying potential brick and masonry structures, 5, 160- 161, 234, 237 testing altematives, 238 loading-unloading cycles See deformation of rock; fracture of rock; hysteresis loop) longitudinal strain-stress curve, 93 magnetic properties, building stone, 79 maintenance of stone structures, 9 attitude toward maintenance personnel, 281, 284 contracting for services, 283 diagnosis, condition of structure, 283 employee turnover, 283 historic structures, 272-280, 281-286 masonry preservation, 38 periodic inspection, 282 record keeping, 282, 283 RESTORE, training program, 284-285 routines, 17, 20, 21 trade specialization, effect on, 283 training programs, 282-285 See also cleaning stone surfaces; stone

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356 preservatives; treatment of stone structures) marble, 81 color, 53 definition, ASTM standard, 53 dissolution by acidic waters, 164 moisture deterioration, 108 physical properties, 64 transmittance and reflectance of light, 77 U.S. production, 49 Martin Luther Monument, Worms, West , Germany, spelling, 118 Masonic Cemetery, Fredericksburg, Virginia, 115, 116 masonry acidic attack, 121 air pollutant deterioration, 121 architectural material, 32 characterization, 2 crystallization phenomena, 120-144 deterioration mechanisms, 145 fractures, 5 wind-driven dust, 121 [see also brick; building stone; stone) Masonry Institute, 11 masonry structures animal and bird impacts, 40, 41, 43 cleaning agents, 157 corrective measures, problems, 43-44 deficiencies aesthetic, 234 correction process, 240-241 structural, 234 design defects, 211-232 discoloration, 36 efflorescence, 157 human impacts, 43 mineral impacts, 40 mismatch of materials, 159 moisture damage, 6, 229-230 monitoring performance of remedial work, 241 nonstructural problem diagnosis, 211- 232 restoration procedures, 16~161 staining, 36 structural design integrity, 158, 23 241 vegetable impacts, 40 Washington, D.C., 31-48 Index water-impermeable coatings, 158 (see also historic structures; monuments; stone structures| materials suppliers, 7 Mayari-R, staining problems, 36 mechanical cleaning of stone surfaces, 274 mechanical erosion of masonry, 121 {see also sandblasting) mechanical properties of building stone, 64, 75-77 metallic stearates, 277 Metallurgical Advisory Board (see under later name National Materials Advisory Board) metamorphic rock, 51 permeability research, lack of, 66 isee also greenstone; marble; quartzite; slate) meteorological data, 203 microclimates in stone buildings, 1, 4, 344 microiracturing of rock, 71, 8~85 (see also fracture of rock microwave scanning, 268 Middle Ages architecture, 51 minerals hardness, Mobs' scale of, 64, 75 impacts on masonry structures, 40 {see also building stone; stone) Mobil Foundation, 11 models and modeling aggregation properties of building stone, 69-71 microclimates in monuments, 344 stone deterioration process, 5, 20 surface deposition of air pollutants, 18~196 modulus of elasticity of rock, 64, 76, 95, 97 modulus of rupture of rock, 64, 76-77 Mobs' scale of hardness, 64, 75 moisture atmospheric factor in stone decay, 199 . agnosls electrical conductivity measurement, 6 ground moisture, 111 indoors from saturated air, 112 infrared scanner, 6 leaking plumbing, 111 leaking roofs, 111-112

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Index neutron moisture probe, 6 rain and drizzle, 110-111 expansion of brick, 145, 157 measurement, 6 source of stone deterioration, 108-119 (see also condensation reactions; dissolution; evaporation by diffusion; freeze-thaw cycle; water penetration molded brick, water absorption levels, 152 monitoring air quality, 4-5 . . c ,etenoratlon friability tests, 77 preservative trials, quantitative, 332 meteorological events, 4-5 pollution-caused environmental conditions, 38 requirements for buildings, 4 site investigation of masonry, structure deterioration, 23~237 techniques, 4 trials for stone preservatives, 338- 339 structure change, photogrammetry, 242-271 monomers, stone consolidation, 319-320 monument stone (see brick; building stone; masonry; stoned monuments conservation, 1, 341-345 funding for research, 10-1 1 poultice techniques 27~277 techniques, 342-343 technology transfer, 1 definition, 341 preservation analytical methods, 163-182 funding for research, 10-11 restoration, 341-345 structural distress diagnosis, 5 Washington, D.C. 2, 31-48 (see also historic structures; stone structures) mortar air-entraining agents, 15(}151 deterioration high-rise buildings, 230 rate, 145 357 freezing disrupts, 151 historic masonry materials, 279 lime sand, 150 masonry cement, 150 permeability, 151 Portland cement, 150, 222 properties of, 151 salt crystallization experiments, 15 157 Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollutant Study, 191- 193 museum conservation and architectural conservation, 23 NASA (see National Aeronautics and Space Administration) National Aeronautics and Space Administration nondestructive analysis of stone . ... preSerVatlOIl, V111 technology transfer to preservation of stone buildings, ~7 National Bureau of Standards test wall, 4, 109-111, 203 National Endowment for the Humanities, funding for interdisciplinary research, 11 National Gallery of Art, East Wing, Washington, D.C., marble deterioration, 45, 50 National Materials Advisory Board Committee on Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings And Monuments, conference (Feb. 2-4, 1981 I, viii-ix formation, viii members and staff, iii-iv report, 1-12 members and staff of board, v-vi National Park Service' building maintenance training programs, 282 Census of Treated-Monuments, 7, 8, 9 Division of Technical Preservation Services, 7 funding for interdisciplinary research, 11 National Research Council (see National Materials Advisory Board)

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358 National Science Foundation funding for interdisciplinary research, 11 Prevention of Deterioration Center, 11 National Trust for Historic Preservation building maintenance training programs, 282 scientific advisory committees, 10 structural distress diagnosis, 5 NAT - CCMS See North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Committee on the Challenges of Modem Society) natural weathering {see weathering NDT See nondestructive testing) neutron-g~mma techniques, 163,177, 179-182 neutron moisture probe, 6 New Hampshire, building stone production, 49,54 - nitrate pollution, effect on stone structures, 4 NMAB {see National Materials Advisory Board) nondestructive testing diagnostic surveys, 6 masonry structure evaluation, 238 RILEM proposals, 9 photogrammetry, 242-271 stone preservative trials, 332 stone preservation, NASA study, viii stone structure.deterioration, 163 structural damage diagnosis, 238 treatment evaluation, 9, 10 X-ray diffraction, 170 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Committee on the Challenges of Modem Society, vii purpose, 345 role in conservation/restoration of monuments, 341-342 NTHP {see National Trust for Historic Preservation) nylon, stone consolidant, 304 obsidian, definition, 53-54 optical emission spectroscopy, 163 optical properties, building stone, 77-78 organosilane coupling agents, 313,314 Index organosilicon compounds, 330 orthophotography, 247-249 {see~also photography; .stereophotography) parapets, deterioration susceptibility, 222-223 Particulate Mineralogy Unit, 59 patching materials {see polymer compounds) permeability of building stone, 62-70 estimates using electrical properties measurement, 78 (see also Darcy's law) phoretic effects of air pollution, 189-191 photogrnmmetry accuracy, 246-247 aerial vs. terrestrial, 243,250-253, 270-271 applications research, 260-271 basic principles, 243 257 control points, 248,250 cost effectiveness of architectural photogr~mmetry, 257-258,264 definition, 242 digitizing data, 253,254,255,269,271 documentation of change in historic structures, 243 engineering and art, 255-259 ground control, 248 integrity of historic structures, 243 measurement of historic and prehistoric structures, 242-271 monitoring historic structures, 260- 267 precision, 246-247 reconstruction of historic sites, 269- 270,271 scale, 246-247 {see also holography; microwave scanning; orthophotography; stereophotography) photography, treatment evaluation, 9 {see also orthophotography; stereophotography) physical properties of building stone, 62- 86 plaster, crystallization phenomena, 120

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Index plastic deformation, 88, 89 Isee also deformation of rock) pointing historic masonry, 278-279 Poiseuille flow, 124, 125, 133-135, 142 pollutants, effects on stone structures, 1, 4, 37-38, 62 See also acid rain; aerosols; air pollutants) polyesters, 300, 304 patching materials 313, 317, 318 polyethylene, 323 glycol, evaluation as stone preservative, 331 polymer composites, protective materials, 312-321 Isee also coatings) polyurethane, 300, 304 porosity of building stone, 62-71 application for determining coating material, 20 brick, 145, 152 effect on fracture strength, 103 effect on rock deformation, 92-95 measurement techniques, 6, 333 Isee also Laplace radius; Poiseuille flow) poultice techniques, 276-277, 278 Powder Diffraction File, 169 practical conservation, 14, 15 precipitation (see acid rain; rain) precision in photogrammetry, 246-247 prehistoric structures, photogrammetric measurement and monitoring, 242-271 prepolymers, stone consolidation, 319- 320 preservation (see cultural property, preservation; historic structures, preservation; monuments, preservation; stone preservatives; stone preservation; stone structures, preservation) preservatives Isee stone preservatives) pressed brick, 147, 152 pressure-strain curve, 90-92 Prevention of Deterioration Center, 11 preventive maintenance See maintenance of stone structures) protective coatings {see coatings) public access to historic monuments, 1 359 quarries dimension stone, 2 environmental problems, 59 health hazards, 59 limestone, dissolution effects, 113 Middle Ages, 51 national inventory, 3 quartz, 52 Young's modulus of elasticity, 97 quartzite, 53, 81 fracture strength, 97 physical properties, 64 porosity, 64, 65, 66 quasilaminar layer, dry deposition, 186- 189 rain chemical composition, 191-193 clean sing mechanism, 183 control through building design, 213- 214 measurement for stone preservation applications, 204, 206 staining from limestone onto brick, 213 Isee also acid rain) reconstruction historic buildings, 27, 30 historic sites, 269-270, 271 reflectance spectroscopy, 176-179 registered landmarks documentation requirements, 7 experimental treatments for preservation, 7 rehabilitation Isee restoration) relocation, monuments, 343 repair Isee cleaning stone surfaces; surface repair; surface treatments) reproduction, cultural property, 27, 30 research funding for stone conservation, 10-11 resins {see epoxies; polyesters) restoration cultural property, 27, 29-30 historic structures, 235 masonry structures, procedures, 160- 161 monuments, 341-345

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360 photographic products as historic documents, 243 stone structures, methods, 1 RESTORE, building maintenance restoration training program, 284- 285 Reunion Intemationale des Laboratoires d'Essais et de Recherche sur les Materiaux et les Constructions {see Intemational Union of Testing and Research Laboratories) rhyolite, 64, 80 RILEM Isee Intemational Union of Testing and Research Laboratories) rock (see building stone; deformation of rock; elasticity of rock; friability of rock; fracture of rock; stone) Roman stone architecture, 51 roofs moisture content, 6, 111-112 water penetration, 150, 224, 225 Isee also flashing) saline-water content effect on electrical properties of building stone, 78 ground moisture, 111 salt crystallization test brick, 149 stone preservatives, 333 Isee also salt decay, crystallization phenomena) salt decay chemical cleaning of stone surfaces, 275-276 crystallization phenomena, 120-144, 288 atmospheric factors, 200 brick durability, 149, 156-157, 158 prevention using stone preservatives, 335 stone consolidants, 293 masonry, 145 model, need for, 5 {see also efflorescence; spelling) salt-deposition experiments, 127-140 Index salt migration ground moisture, 111 stone deterioration, 4 sandblasting, 159, 160, 273, 274-275 sandstone air-abrasive cleaning techniques, 275 Aquia Creek, 115 cements, 82 definition, ASTM standard, 52 deterioration from rain and drizzle, 111 physical properties, 64 salt decay experiments, 127-144 stress-strain curves, 96, 97 U.S. production, 49 saturation coefficient in brick, 152, 155, 160 scale in photogrammetry, 246-247 scaling granites, 117-1 18 resulting from dissolution, 114-115 scanning electron microscope, 17() 173, 299 science arid conservation technology, 13- 14 (see also technology transfer) scientists relationship with conservators, 15, 16 role in historic preservation, 13-21 sedimentary rocks, 51 permeability research, 66 See also limestone; sandstone; shale) SEM {see scanning electron microscope) serpentinite, 64, 83 shale, 64, 65, 83 SLA Isee Society for Industrial Archaeology) silane coupling agents, 314 silica, 82 silicates paint system, 278 stone conservation, 14 weathering, 115-117 siliceous consolidants, 293 silicofluorides, 295 silicone resins, 277 sills, 227, 228 siloxanes, 323 site monitoring {see monitoring; photogrammetry, monitoring)

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Ides slate, 81 color, 53 definition, ASTM standard, 53 physical properties, 64 U.S. production, 49 Smithsonian Institution, Castle Building, Washington, D.C., 34, 82 soapstone, 64, 83 Society for Industrial Archaeology, structural distress diagnosis, 5 sodium chloride deposition {see salt decay, crystallization phenomena) - solar insolation, 204, 207 spelling, 108, 120 granite, 118 sills, 227 spectroscopy (see Auger spectroscopy; electron spectroscopy-chemical analysis; neutron-gamma techniques; optical emission spectroscopy; reflectance spectroscopy; X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) stabilizers, synthetic polymers, 324-325 staining brick, 150, 157, 213 chemical and physical incompatibilities of building materials, 213 chemical cleaning of stone surfaces, 275-276 hydrofluoric acid, 295 masonry, 36 weathering steels, 36 See also discoloration) standards, 4, 5, 8, 16 (see also American Society for Testing and Materials) standards of ethics, conservation treatments, 25 steam cleaning of stone surfaces, 274 Stefan flow, 189-190, 202 [see also condensation reactions) stereophotography, 244-246 stone, definition, 50 Isee also building stone; dimension stone stone buildings {see historic structures; monuments; stone structures) 361 stone conservation alkali silicate application, 14 fluosilicate application, 14 funding for research, 10-11 practice, 20-21 scientific support, 19 scientist's role, 13-21 silicates, 14 standards, 8 Isee also coatings; conservation; cultural property, conservation; monuments, conservation; stone consolidants; stone preservatives; treatments for stone surfaces) stone consolidants, 7, 308-311 alkoxysilanes, 287, 298-300 definition, 289 documentation of performance, 305 epoxies, 303-304 inorganic materials, 287, 291, 19~ 198 selection, 307 standards for testing, 287, 289-290, 292, 294, 306-307 synthetic organic polymers, 287, 300- 302 waxes, 287, 304-305 stone consolidation, 7, 313 monomers, 319-320 prepolymers, 319-320 stone decay See stone deterioration) stone deterioration air pollution factors measurement, 197-210 biological agents, 5 building design defects, 211 case studies, 19-20 chemical mechanisms, 185 climatological factors measurement, 197-210 color, importance of, 77 crystallization phenomena, 120-144 diagnosis, 5, 62, 84 freeze-thaw cycle, 4, 5, 73, 74, 199 measurement methods, for atmospheric factors, 203-209 mechanisms, 3-4, 184-85, 198, 200- 202 methodology for study, 165 models, 5, 19, 20 pollution, 1, 62

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362 problems, 108-119 public access to buildings, 1 solar insolation, 199 specialists needed, 85 structural distress, 5 sulfuric acid, 19 susceptibility tests, 79 theory, 5, 19-20, 122 thermal conductivity measurement, 74 thiobacill~', 19 type of stones, 108 urbanization, 1 vibration, 5 wind, 199 see also moisture; salt decay; weathering of stone) stone maintenance (see maintenance of stone structures! stone preservation atmospheric measurement methods, 203-205 documentation requirements, 7 laboratory, 11 measurement methods, 203-205 methods, 1 policy and planning, 11-12 problems, categories of, 35-43 {see also cultural property, preservation; historic preservation; monuments, preservation; stone preservatives; treatment of stone) stone preservatives definition, 329 evaluation, 329~40 performance criteria, 336-337 policy for use, 338 tests accelerated aging chambers, 332, 334-335 building sites, 331-332 field testing, 337 laboratory testing, 337 treated stone, 334-336 treatment objective assessment, 335-336 untreated stone, 333-334 {see also coatings; stone consolidants; treatment of stone) stone structures deterioration nondestructive analysis, 6, 163 Index rate of, 1, 312 water and moisture, 6 diagnostic surveys and techniques, 5, 6 loading, 5 preservation methods, 1 Washington, D.C., 31-48 (see also historic structures; monumental stone surfaces {see cleaning stone surfaces; coatings; stone consolidants; stone preservatives; surface of stone| Stones of the Nation's Capital, 2 stress-strain curves elastic materials, 87, 88 glass, 88 longitudinal, 93 plastic flow, 88, 89 sandstone, 96, 97 (see also thermal stresses; volumetric strain-pressure curve) strontium hydroxide, 196-197 structural integrity diagnosis in masonry structures, 5, 239-241 analytical techniques, 238-239 documentation, 239 evaluation process, 235, 236, 239 preliminary evaluation plan, 235-237 site investigation, 236, 237 testing alternatives, 237-238 sulfur dioxide deposition, 185 See also deposition of air pollutants) sulfuric acid, stone deterioration, 19 surface of stone analyzers, 163-182 decay prediction by evaporation of water measurement, 126 prediction by sodium chloride crystallization measurement, 127 rate of escape of water, 125-126 sodium chloride deposition, 127-140 theory, 122 deposition of air pollutants, 196 examination techniques, 163 loss calculation, 139-140 protective materials, 312-321 repair grouting, 279 historic buildings, 272-280 pointing, 278-279

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Index tension and compressive strength, 103, 104 Isee also cleaning stone surfaces; coatings; stone consolidants; stone deterioration; stone preservatives; treatment of stone) synthetic organic monomers, 312-313 (see also monomers) synthetic organic polymers, 287, 304, 312-313 acrylic copolymers, 302 acrylic polymers, 301-302 vinyl polymers, 302 synthetic polymers antioxidant, 324, 325 antiweathering stabilizers, 324-325 composition, 323 protective coatings, 322-328 site evaluations, 325-326 stabilizers, 324-325 weathering of, 322-328 weatherometer evaluations, 327 technologists {see conservation, technologists) technology and dimension stone industry, 59 and science, 14 transfer to preservation of historic buildings and monuments, 1, 6 temperature deformation of rock, effect on, 95-97 fracture of rock, factor in, 89 measurement for stone preservation applications, 204, 207 terra-cotta, air-abrasive cleaning techniques, 275 terrestrial vs. aerial photogrammetry, 250-253 test walls CCMS pilot study recommendations, 344 National Bureau of Standards, 4, 109- 111, 203 testing Isee laboratory tests and testing; nondestructive testing! thermal properties of building stone, 64 conductivity, 74-75 expansion, 71-73, 287-288 363 thermal insulation and masonry building deterioration, 211, 231 thermoplastic materials, stone consolidation, 300, 320 thermosets, stone consolidant, 300 See also epoxies) thiobacill~, 19 topographical analyzer {see surface of stone, analyzers) tour of historic stone buildings and monuments, Washington, D.C., 31, 33 guide, 47 map, 48 . . training programs historic building maintenance, 282, 283 RESTORE, 284-285 transmission and reflectance, building stone, 77-78 travertine, 83 definition, 52 physical properties, 64 transmittance and reflectance of light, 77 treatment of stone bird impacts, 40, 41, 43 Brethane, 278, 298, 299 conservation interventions, 25-30 documentation, 344 evaluation, 8, 9 lime-based, 277-278, 331 preservation treatments, 7-10 silicate paint system, 278 (see also coatings; stone conservation; stone consolidants; stone preservatives) Tweed Court House, New York City, granite spelling, 118 ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, 174 ultraviolet radiation polymer degradation and resistance, 323-327 stone preservative degradation, 335 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization {UNESCO), 344

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364 UPS See ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy) U.S. Bureau of Mines dimension stone studies, 2-3 Particulate Mineralogy Unit, 59 U.S. Capital Building, Washington, D.C., marble decay, 116-118 U.S. dimension stone production, 49 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency {see Environmental Protection Agency) U.S. Geological Survey, The Stones of the Nations Capital, 2 U.S. National Bureau of Standards {see National Bureau of Standards) U.S. National Committee of the International Council on Monuments and Sites, 10 U.S. Public Buildings Service Inventory, 31 universities, curricula in technology of historic buildings, 10 urbanization, effects on stone buildings, values, cultural, 23-24, 27 vapor barriers, criteria for, 7 {see also coatings) vegetable impacts, masonry structures, 40 Vermont, building stone production, 49, 54 vibration, role in deterioration of stone structures, 5, 6 vinyl polymers, 302 volumetric strain-pressure curve, 90, 91 Walls base of, moisture damage, 229-230 bearing, 214-215 cavity, 214, 215-217 curtain wall construction, 217-222 washing stone surfaces, 273-274 {see also cleaning stone surfaces) Washington, D.C. Index guide, 47 map, 48 Washington Monument, Washington, D.C., 34 water penetration brick structures, 145, 158 and bond with mortar, 150-151 deformation of rock, effects on, 95 masonry structures, 145, 158 site investigations, 237 testing alternatives, 238 {see also acid rain; condensation; dissolution; evaporation by diffusion; freeze-thaw cycle; . . moisture; rain; saline-water content; weathering of stone) waterproof coatings {see coatings) wavelength-dispersive systems, X-ray fluorescence, 166-168 wavelength shift effect, 173-174 waxes, 287, 304-305 weathering of stone, 1, 3, 4 analytical methods, 163-182 color as indicator, 77 dimension stone, 2 laboratory tests simulation, 8 masonry deterioration, 37-38 measurement, 71 performance of material, 213 preventive maintenance programs, 282 rates, 108 resistance factor, 50 (see also acid rain; freeze-thaw cycles; maintenance of stone; stone preservatives; rain; temperature; water penetration) weathering of synthetic polymers, 322- 328 weathering steels, 36 weatherometer evaluations, synthetic polymers, 327 West Germany Freiburg Cathedral, lime crust, 112, 115 stone sculpture, weathering effects, 109 Worms, Martin Luther Monument, spelling, 1 18 building stones of capital, 2, 51 Western Province, 56, 58 tour of historic stone buildings and wet and dry deposition of air pollutants, monuments, 31, 33 4, 5, 183-196, 202

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~" 111 mad acts ~ awe ~tedo~bo~ 199 measurement ~r stone pIese^ation ~plicadons, 205, 20308 w~d-~v~ gust, mason deed 121 window opens in mason, 22~229 X~ detraction abyss, 163, 16~170 X-r~ Quiescence spectroscopy, 1~, 165, 170, 205, 209 365 gem disperse systems, 16~168 Raveled dispersive systems, 16- 168 X-~ photoelectron spectmsc~y, 174 X-~ spectroscopy, 205, 209 97 {ses ~o elasticity of rock