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Conservation of His~nc Stone Buildings and Monuments Report of the Committee on Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments National Materials Advisory Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1982

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which established the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Acad- emy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and eng~neenng communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems concerns itself with the development and application of the engineering disciplines to technological and industrial systems, and their relationship to societal problems of both national and international significance. The National Materials Advisory Board is a unit of the Commission on Engineenng and Technical Systems of the National Research Council. Organized in 1951 as the Metallurgical Advisory Board, through a series of changes and expansion of scope, it became the National Materials Advisory Board in 1969. Its general purpose is the advancement of materials science and engi- neering in the national interest. It fulfills that purpose by providing advice and assistance to government agencies and private organizations on matters of materials science and technology affecting the national interest, by focusing attention on the materials aspects of national problems and opportunities, and by making appropriate recommendations for the solution of such problems and the exploitation of the opportunities. This study by the National Matenals Advisory Board was conducted under Contract No. NSF PFR8015683 with the National Science Foundation. This contract was jointly funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, the National Science Foun- dation, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. This is National Matenals Advisory Board pub- lication NMAB 397. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 82-082101 international Standard Book Number 0-309-03275-X (paperbound) 0-309-03288-1 (hardbound) Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD COMMITTEE ON CONSERVATION OF HISTORIC STONE BUILDINGS AND MONUMENTS Chapman NORBERT S. BAER, Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, New York City, New York Members RICHARD CALDWELL, Mobil Research and Development Corporation, Field Research Laboratory, Dallas, Texas JAMES COLVILLE, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland NORMAN HERA, Department of Geology, Athens, Georgia RUSSELL V. KEUNE, National Trust for Historic Preservation Washington, D.C. JOHN A. MANSON, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania W. BROWN MORTON Ill, Historic Preservation Cons~tant, Leesburg, Virginia LEE H. NELSON, Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. J. WALTER ROTH, General Services A - inistration, Washington, D.C. University of Georgia,

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Technical Adviser NEAL FITZSIMONS, Engineering Counsel, Kensington, Maryland Liaison Representatives HUGH C. MILLER, National Park Service, Washington, D.C. ROBERT E. PHILLEO, Engineering Division, U.S. Icy Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. RICHARD A. LIVINGSTON, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. GEOFFREY J. C. FROHNSDORFF, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. FREDERICK KRIMGOLD, National Science Fomentation, Washington, D.C. LAWRENCE E. NIEMEYER, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Tnangle Park, North Carolina NMAB Staff STANLEY M. BARKIN, Staff Officer 1V

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NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD Chairman DONALD J. McPHERSON, Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical, Oakland, Califomia Past Chairman WILLIAM D. MANLY, Ford Motor Company, Dearbom, Michigan Members ARDEN L. BEMENT, JR., TRW, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio H. KENT BOWEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cam bridge, Massachusetts WILLIAM J. BURLANT, The Kendall Company, Lexington, Massachusetts JAMES C. BURROS, Charles River Associates, Boston, Massachusetts RAYMOND F. DECKER, DECO Limited, New York, New York BRIAN R. T. FROST, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois SERGE GRATCH, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan NICK HOLONYAK, JR., University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois SHELDON E. ISAKOFF, E. I. du Pont de Nemours ~ Company, Inc., Wilmington, Delaware

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FRANK E. JAUMOT, JR., General Motors Corporation, Kokomo, ~ Indiana PAUL J. JORGENSEN, Stanford Research Institute, MenIo Park, California ALAN LAWLEY, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania RAYMOND F. MIKESELL, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon DAVID OKRENT, University of California, Los Angeles, California R. BYRON PIPES, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware BRIAN M. RUSHTON, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, Pennsylvania JOHN J. SCHANZ, JR., Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. DOROTHY M. SIMON, AVCO Corporation, Greenwich, Connecticut MICHAEL TENENBAUM, Flossmoor, Illinois WILLIAM A. VOGELY, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania ROBERT P. WEl, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania ALBERT R. C. WESTWOOD, Martin Marietta Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland NMAB Staff K. M. ZWILSKY, Executive Director R. V. HEMM, Executive Secretary V1

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Preface The work represented by this document grew out of a meeting of specialists concerned with the preservation of stone monuments held at the U.S. National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., on September 28, 1978. The meeting was initiated by the Environmental Protection Agency {EPA) as the primary U.S. agency participating in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Committee on the Chal- lenges of Modem Society {NATiCCMS); it was organized by the Smith- sonian Institution. The CCMS coordinator had proposed a pilot study, "The hnpact of Pollution on Cultural Artifacts." However, the con- sensus of those assembled was that it would be both timely and es- sential to limit the study to the preservation of stone, because problems with deterioration of stone were a growing concern in virtually all NATO nations. At the NATiCCMS plenary session in May 1979, the pilot study was approved under the title "The Conservation/Restoration of Monu- ments." Greece was named pilot nation and France, the United States, and the Federal Republic of Germany the copilot nations. A copy of the proposal is included in this document. The U.S. steering committee for the study proposed various research activities as part of this country's role. Some of these activities gained support from government agencies. For example, the Heritage Con- servation and Recreation Service (U.S. Department of the Interior) undertook to develop a Census of Treated Monuments; EPA, the Gen- eral Services Administration, and the National Park Service (also a ~ V11

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- ~ V111 PREFACE unit of Interior) cooperated in a monitoring project at the Bowling Green Customs House in New York City; and the National Aeronau- tics and Space Administration studied applications of nondestructive analysis to the preservation of stone. . .. .. ... . . .. l Among the activities proposed by the steering committee was a conference designed to achieve three goals: to summarize the state of research on stone conservation, to define research needs and priorities, and to interest scientists from many disciplines in the problems at hardy. An approach to the National Science Foundation led to the suggestion that the National Academy of Sciences would~ be an ideal setting for such a meeting. A series of preliminary meetings was fol- lowed~ by formation of the Cornrnittee on Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments of the Academy's National Materials Advisory Board (N~. The committee organized a conference of scientists, preservation architects, engineers, and architectural historians interested in the problems of historic masonry structures. The conference was held February 2=, 1981, at the Academy's headquarters in Washington. This document contains the Proceedings of that conference and the committee's final report. To provide a common background for the participants, the com- mittee commissioned a series of papers designed to review the state of research in relevant disciplines. The coverage achieved by these papers is broad, but it is not comprehensive. Seismic effects, vibration analysis, removal of graffiti, surface chemistry, modeling of microcli- mates of builclings, and moisture in buildings are among the topics that were either omitted or given limited attention. In some areas surface chemistry, microclimate modeling, and the effects of mois- turesubstitution or shifts of emphasis by the authors narrowed the anticipated coverage. Other subjects seismic effects, adobe, and mud brick were considered too complex to be accommodated readily in the format of the conference. Nevertheless, these assembled papers give the scientist a basic introduction to the many facets of historic preservation. Similarly, the scientific reviews give the preservation architect a general introduction to the relevant scientific and engi- . . . neerlIlg C lSClp. .lneS. At the conference the attendees participated in five discussion groups led by members of the cornrn~ttee. These frank discussions provided important supplemental material for the committee as it developed its final report. The committee has supplemented the proceedingsthe edited pa- pers and the committee report with certain other materials. These

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PREFACE 1X include bibliographies for those papers where references and reading lists were unavailable and a revised version of Bemard Feilden's pre- viously published paper, "The Principles of Conservation." The com- mittee's report reviews the state of research in the United States and proposes a national research effort. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many contributed to the work of the committee and the success of the conference. The enthusiastic support of Dr. Philip Handler, then President of the National Academy of Sciences, was crucial. He par- ticipated in the inception of the conference and made possible the consideration of what in many ways was a nontraditional project for the Academy. Mrs. Lee Kimche, as Director of the Institute of Museum Services, U.S. Department of Education, first suggested that a confer- ence be held. Moreover, she played a vital role in bringing together and keeping together the several government agencies that sponsored the work of the cornrnittee. The 20 authors who contributed manu- scripts in a timely manner under serious constraints on time provided the basic resource for the formulation of the final report. Financial support for the conference organized by the committee was provided by the General Services Administration, the National Science Foundation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The Institute of Museum Services, U.S. Department of Education, initiated planning of the conference and provided coordination of financial support. The British Council defrayed the travel expenses of conference speakers from the United Kingdom. The committee wishes to express its gratitude for these . . contra Buttons. The committee takes particular pleasure in acknowledging the splendid support of the NMAB staff, especially the project scientist, Dr. Stanley M. Barkin. His enthusiasm and hardworking stewardship provided the continuity essential to the work of the committee. Norbert S. Baer Chairman

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