Index

A

Accidents and emergencies, 17, 18, 46, 62

Acclimation and adaptation, 28-29

of newly acquired animals, 57, 58

to outdoor housing, 25, 30

Acquisition of animals, 57

Activity and exercise, 37, 38

Agricultural research, 4-5

Airborne contaminants, 17, 22-23, 24, 33, 62-63

Airflow, see Ventilation and airflow

Air pressure. 17, 31, 76, 79

Albinism, 35

Alternatives to animal research, 1, 10, 117

recommended readings, 82-83

American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC), 102-103

American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS), 13, 103

American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM), 103

American Humane Association (AHA), 103-104

American Humane Education Society (AHES), 110

American Society of Heating. Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 32

American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners (ASLAP), 104

American Society of Primatologists (ASP), 104

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), 65, 104-105

Amphibians, recommended readings, 83

Analgesia and analgesics. 12, 64-65

recommended readings, 83-84

Anesthesia and anesthetics, 12, 63, 64-65

recommended readings, 83-85

recovery from, 63-64, 79

waste gases, 17

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 112-113, 114

Animal care and use protocols, 8-11

Animal training, 11, 25

Animal Welfare Act, 113, 114

Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC), 13, 37, 105

Animal Welfare Institute (AWI), 105

Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs), 2, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 114, 117

housing guidelines, 25, 26

on personnel qualifications, 13, 61

on transport, 57

on veterinary care, 13

Antibiotics, 61

Anxiolytics, 65



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Index A Accidents and emergencies, 17, 18, 46, 62 Acclimation and adaptation, 28-29 of newly acquired animals, 57, 58 to outdoor housing, 25, 30 Acquisition of animals, 57 Activity and exercise, 37, 38 Agricultural research, 4-5 Airborne contaminants, 17, 22-23, 24, 33, 62-63 Airflow, see Ventilation and airflow Air pressure. 17, 31, 76, 79 Albinism, 35 Alternatives to animal research, 1, 10, 117 recommended readings, 82-83 American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC), 102-103 American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS), 13, 103 American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM), 103 American Humane Association (AHA), 103-104 American Humane Education Society (AHES), 110 American Society of Heating. Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 32 American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners (ASLAP), 104 American Society of Primatologists (ASP), 104 American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), 65, 104-105 Amphibians, recommended readings, 83 Analgesia and analgesics. 12, 64-65 recommended readings, 83-84 Anesthesia and anesthetics, 12, 63, 64-65 recommended readings, 83-85 recovery from, 63-64, 79 waste gases, 17 Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 112-113, 114 Animal care and use protocols, 8-11 Animal training, 11, 25 Animal Welfare Act, 113, 114 Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC), 13, 37, 105 Animal Welfare Institute (AWI), 105 Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs), 2, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 114, 117 housing guidelines, 25, 26 on personnel qualifications, 13, 61 on transport, 57 on veterinary care, 13 Antibiotics, 61 Anxiolytics, 65

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Apes, see Nonhuman primates Association of Primate Veterinarians (APV), 105-106 Australia and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching (ANZCCART), 106 Autoclaving of foods and bedding, 39, 41 for surgery, 62, 79 B Barrier entry systems, 16 Bedding24, 32, 41 changing of, 24, 29, 34, 42, 44 disposal, 15, 16 Behavior and behavior changes, 2, 11, 12, 22, 23, 25, 36-38 Biologic agents and hazards, 14, 16, 18, 44 recommended readings, 85-86 waste disposal, 44, 45 Biologic-safety cabinets, 17, 76 Birds, recommended readings, 87 Bites and scratches, 14, 18 Bordetella bronchiseptica,59 Breeding and reproduction, 47, 57 environmental conditions for, 22, 25, 35 records, 46, 47 C Cages and caging, 23, 38 cleaning and sanitation, 24, 43, 44 complexities in, 25, 36 dimensions and space allocation, 25-28 flooring, 24, 43 see also Primary enclosures Calorie restriction, 40 Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Medicine/L'Association canadienne dela medecine des animaux de laboratoire (CALAM/ACMAL) , 106-107 Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science/L'Association canadienne pour la technologie des animeaux laboratoire (CALAM/ACTAL) , 106-107 Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), 13, 107 Carcass disposal, 45, 73, 77 Cats, 38, 46 housing requirements, 25, 28, 32 procurement, 57 recommended readings, 87 Cattle, space requirements, 26, 31, 38 Cedar shavings, 41 Ceilings, 75 Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), 107-108 Center for Laboratory Animal Welfare (CLAW), 110 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 16, 18 Cercopithecine herpesvirus,18, 59 Chairing, 11 Chemical cleaning agents, 14, 43, 62 Chickens, 28, 32 Circadian cycles, 34, 35 Cleaning and sanitation, 15, 24, 34, 42-44, 72, 77-78 Clinical records, 46-47 Clothing, 15, 17 Cold storage and refrigeration, 39, 45, 77 Committees, see Institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) Computer modeling as an alternative to animal use, 10, 117 in facility design, 31, 71 Conditioned-response protocols, 12 Construction materials, 23, 72 Contaminants airborne, 17, 22-23, 24, 33, 62-63 in food, 38, 39 recommended readings, 88-89 in water, 40, 41 Corridors, 16, 73, 77 Cryopreservation, 47-48 D Defecation, 23, 43 Dehydration, 12 Diagnosis, 59-60 Diet and dietary control, 12, 39, 40 Disaster planning, 46 Disease control, 57-58, 60 Disease susceptibility, 22-23, 37 Disinfection, 23, 24, 42-44 Disposable clothing, 15 Distress and euthanasia, 10, 65, 66 procedures causing, 10-11, 65, 117

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Diurnal cycles, 35 Dogs, 11, 37, 38, 46 housing requirements, 24, 25-26, 28, 29n, 32, 38 procurement, 57 recommended readings, 87 Doors, 73 Double-corridor facilities, 16 Drafts, 31 Drainage, 17, 24, 74 Drugs, 11 recommended readings, 96-97 Dry-bulb temperature, 29, 31 E Education and training of personnel, 13-14, 15, 16, 117 in noise reduction, 36 recommended readings, 100-101 in safety procedures, 15, 16 in surgical procedures, 61 Electric power systems, 76 Emergency procedures, 17, 18, 46, 62 Enclosures, see Cages and caging; Primary enclosures; Secondary enclosures Endangered Species Act, 114-115 Entrapment, 23 Environmental conditions, 22-36 natural versus controlled, 4, 22, 25 see also Facilities; Housing Environmental enrichment, 21, 25, 27, 36-38 recommended readings, 88 Ergonomics, 15 Escape, 23, 24 Ether, 17 Ethics, recommended readings, 89 Euthanasia, 10, 65-66 recommended readings, 89 and surgical procedures, 62, 117 Exercise and activity, 37, 38 Exotic and wild species, 5, 30 endangered, 57, 114-115 recommended readings, 89-90 F Facilities, 71-79 for cleaning and sanitation, 15, 72, 77-78 for hazardous-agent experimentation, 16-17, 72, 76 recommended readings, 87-88 safety design and support, 15-16 for surgery, 62-63, 78-79 see also Cages and caging; Housing; Outdoor housing; Primary enclosures; Secondary enclosures; Space requirements Farm animals, 4-5, 46 housing requirements, 4, 28, 30-31, 32, 38 recommended readings, 4-5, 90-91 surgery on, 63, 79 Field studies, 5 Fighting, 37 Filter-top cages, 24, 29, 33, 58 Fish and Wildlife Service, 57, 115 Fishes, recommended readings, 83 Flooring, 24, 74 in cages, 24, 43 Food and feeding, 23, 25, 38-40 autoclavings, 39, 41 bowls and devices, 26, 39-40, 43 recommended reading, 94-95 restrictions, 12, 40 storage, 39, 40, 41, 77 Foundation for Biomedical Research (FBR), 108 Furnishings, 23, 24, 26, 36-37 recommended readings, 88 G Gas concentrations, 22, 33, 34 Genetics, 47-48 recommended readings, 91-92 Gerbils, 32 Goats, 26, 30, 58 Groups, see Social groups and social interaction Guinea pigs, 27, 43, 58, 59 H Hamsters, 27, 32, 43 Hazardous agents, 14, 16-17 recommended readings, 85-86, 88-89 waste disposal, 44, 45 Hearing protection, 17

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Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, 33, 34, 75-76 Heat loads, 30, 31, 32, 33 Height, of enclosures, 25, 26-27 HEPA filters (high-efficiency particulate air filters), 33-34, 76 Herpesvirus simine,18, 59 Herpesvirus tamarinus, 59 Holidays, care during, 46 Horses, space requirements, 31, 38 Housing, 23, 117 factors in planning, 21-22 safety design, 15-16 see also Cages and caging; Outdoor housing; Primary enclosures; Secondary enclosures; Space requirements; and specific animals Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), 108-109 Human interaction, 38 Humidity and moisture, 22, 23, 24, 29, 30, 34, 75 Husbandry and management practices, 2, 38-46 for outdoor housing, 24-25 recommended readings, 92-93 see also Bedding; Cleaning and sanitation; Food and feeding; Records and record-keeping; Repair and maintenance I Identification of animals, 46, 57 Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), 35 Illumination, 34-35, 76 Immunizanon, 18 Immunocompromised animals, 15, 44 Inbreeding, 47, 48 Incineration, 45 Infectious-disease studies, 18 Inspections, 9 Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), 2, 13, 109 Institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs), 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9-10, 11, 22 and housing design, 24, 26, 27 recommended readings, 82 and surgical procedures. 12, 61 Interagency Research Animal Committee, 116 International Air Transport Association (IATA) Live Animal Regulations , 57 International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS), 109-110 Isolation, see Quarantine; Separation and isolation L Laboratory Animal Management Association (LAMA), 110 Laboratory personnel medical evaluation, 17-18 qualifications and training, 13-14, 117 recommended readings, 100-101 see also Occupational health and safety Laundering services, 15 Light, 34-35, 76 Litter boxes, 26 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, 60 M Macaques, 18, 59 Macroenvironment, 22 Major survival surgery, 11-12, 61 Massachusetts Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (MSPCA), 110 Medical examinations (personnel), 17-18 Metabolic processes, 22-23 Mice, 35, 58 diseases, 59, 60 housing requirements, 27, 32 Microenvironment, 22-23, 31 Modeling, see Computer modeling Moisture, see Humidity and moisture Monkeys, see Nonhuman primates Mouse hepatitis virus, 59, 60 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, 59 N National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR), 111 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 16, 18, 111 National Research Council (NRC). 14, 16, 18 Natural environments, 4, 22, 25 Neuromuscular blocking agents, 65 Nocturnal animals, 35 Noise, 17, 36, 73, 77 Nomenclature, 48 recommended readings, 91-92

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Nonhuman primates, 17, 36, 40 clinical records, 46, 47 diseases of, 18, 58, 59 housing requirements, 24-29 passim, 32, 37 imports, 57 recommended readings, 93-94 restraint, 11 Nontraditional species, see Exotic and wild species Nutrition, see Food and feeding O Occupational health and safety, 5, 10, 14-18 recommended readings, 85-86 Odors, 32, 33, 34, 42, 44 Office for Protection from Research Risks, 111 Outbreeding, 47, 48 Outdoor housing, 24-25 acclimation, 25, 30 pest control, 45 water sources, 41 P Pain, 64, 117 control, 2, 10, 12, 64-65, 117 and euthanasia, 10, 65, 66 procedures causing, 10-11, 65, 117 recommended readings, 83-85 Paralysis, 65, 117 Parasites, readings, 95 Particulate concentrations, 22, 33, 34 Pasteurella multocida,59 Pastures, 4, 24, 25, 38 Pathology, readings, 95 Pedigrees, 47 Pens, 23, 24, 42-43 Perches, 23, 24, 25, 36 Perishable foods, 39 Pest control, 45-46 Pets, 57 Pharmacology, recommended readings, 96-97 Photoperiod, 34, 35, 74 Photostressors, 34 Phototoxic retinopathy, 35 Physical activity, 37, 38 Physical hazards, 14, 15, 16 Physical restraint, 11 Physiologic function, 11-12, 22-23 Pigeons, 28 Pigmentation, 35 Pilot studies, 10 Policies, 2-3 recommended readings, 93 see also Animal care and use protocols Ponies, 31 Postures and postural adjustments, 2, 11, 23, 25, 27 Poultry, 32 Power systems, 76 Primary enclosures, 22, 23-24 cleaning and sanitation, 42-44 dimensions and space allocation, 25-28 flooring, 24 furnishings, 23, 26, 36-37 temperature and humidity, 29 ventilation and airflow, 22, 24, 31-33 see also Cages and caging Primate Information Center, 111 Primates, see Nonhuman primates Primate Supply Information Clearinghouse (PSIC), 112 Procurement of animals, 57 Professional societies, 13, 102-112 passim Protective clothing, 15, 17 Protocols, 8-11 Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 2, 8, 9, 10, 111, 116 housing guidelines, 26 on personnel qualifications, 13, 61 on safety, 14 on veterinary care, 13 Purina Mills, Inc., 112 Q Quail, 28 Quarantines, 57, 58 see also Separation and isolation R Rabbits, 28, 32, 40, 43 diseases, 59 recommended readings, 97-98 Radiation, 14, 15, 45 Rats, 27, 32, 58 albinism and photoxicity, 35 diseases, 59, 60

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Records and record-keeping clinical, 46-47 genetic management, 47-48 identification, 46 Recycled airflow, 33-34, 76 Regulations, 2-3, 8, 10, 57 recommended readings, 93 Regulatory Enforcement of Animal Care (REAC), 112-113 Removals from experiments, 10, 11, 12 Repair and maintenance, 23, 34 Reproduction, see Breeding and reproduction Reptiles, recommended readings, 83 Respiratory protection, 17 Resting areas, 23, 25, 26, 36 Restraint, 11 Risk assessment, 14 Rodents, 36, 40, 43, 58 albinism and photoxicity, 35 diseases of, 59, 60 housing requirements, 24, 25, 26, 27, 32 inbreeding, 47 pathogen-free, 60 recommended readings, 97-98 surgery on, 63, 78 toe-clipping, 46 Runs, 23, 24, 42-43 S Safety, see Occupational health and safety Sanitation, see Cleaning and sanitation Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW), 112 Secondary enclosures, 22, 29, 44 doors and windows, 73-74 ventilation and airflow, 22, 31-33 see also Cages and caging Security, 46, 73 Sedation and sedatives, 12, 65 Separation and isolation, 46, 58-59, 60, 72 Serial publications, 99-100 Sheep, 26, 30, 38 Shelf-life, of food, 39 Sheltered housing, 24 Shelves, 24, 36 Showers, 15, 17, 73 Sialodacryoadenitis virus, 59 Simian hemorrhagic fever, 59 Simian immunodeficiency virus, 59 Social groups and social interaction, 21-27, 37-38, 40 Solid-bottom flooring, 24, 43 Space requirements, 25-28, 30, 31, 32, 38 Stabilization, 57, 58 Sterilization of cages and equipment, 24, 44 of food, 39 of hazardous wastes, 45 for surgery, 62 Storage facilities and containers, 72, 77 for food and bedding, 39-40, 41, 77 for waste, 45, 72, 77 Subclinical infections, 59, 60 Surgical procedures, 11-12, 60-64, 117 autoclaving, 62, 79 facilities, 62-63, 78-79 oversight, 56 postsurgical care, 63-64, 79 recommended readings, 83-85 Surveillance, 16, 18, 58, 59-60 Swine diseases, 59 space requirements, 26, 30 T Temperature, 22, 24, 28-34, 74, 75 Tetanus, 18 Tethering, 11 "3 R's" (replacement, reduction, and refinement), 108, 109 Timed lighting systems, 35, 76 Toe-clipping, 46 Training, see Animal training; Education and training of personnel Transgenic animals, 47-48 Transport of animals, 57 Traps, 46 Treatment and therapeutic procedures, 60 Tuberculosis, 18, 57 Tunnels, 36 U Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), 112 Urine, 23, 43 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 57, 112-113, 114