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impairment of physical or physiologic function. Multiple major survival surgical procedures on a single animal are discouraged but may be permitted if scientifically justified by the user and approved by the IACUC. For example, multiple major survival surgical procedures can be justified if they are related components of a research project, if they will conserve scarce animal resources (NRC 1990; see also footnote, p.2), or if they are needed for clinical reasons. If multiple major survival surgery is approved, the IACUC should pay particular attention to animal well-being through continuing evaluation of outcomes. Cost savings alone is not an adequate reason for performing multiple major survival surgical procedures (AWRs).
Food or Fluid Restriction
When experimental situations require food or fluid restriction, at least minimal quantities of food and fluid should be available to provide for development of young animals and to maintain long-term well-being of all animals. Restriction for research purposes should be scientifically justified, and a program should be established to monitor physiologic or behavioral indexes, including criteria (such as weight loss or state of hydration) for temporary or permanent removal of an animal from the experimental protocol (Van Sluyters and Oberdorfer 1991). Restriction is typically measured as a percentage of the ad libitum or normal daily intake or as percentage change in an animal's body weight.
Precautions that should be used in cases of fluid restriction to avoid acute or chronic dehydration include daily recording of fluid intake and recording of body weight at least once a week (NIH 1990)-or more often, as might be needed for small animals, such as rodents. Special attention should be given to ensuring that animals consume a suitably balanced diet (NYAS 1988) because food consumption might decrease with fluid restriction. The least restriction that will achieve the scientific objective should be used. In the case of conditioned-response research protocols, use of a highly preferred food or fluid as positive reinforcement, instead of restriction, is recommended. Dietary control for husbandry or clinical purposes is addressed in Chapter 2.
Adequate veterinary care must be provided, including access to all animals for evaluation of their health and well-being. Institutional mission, programmatic goals, and size of the animal program will determine the need for full-time, part-time, or consultative veterinary services. Visits by a consulting or part-time veterinarian should be at intervals appropriate to programmatic needs. For specific responsibilities of the veterinarian, see Chapter 3.
Ethical, humane, and scientific considerations sometimes require the use of sedatives, analgesics, or anesthetics in animals (see Appendix A). An attending