and urine can be handled in a controlled manner. Facilities, equipment, and procedures should be provided for appropriate bedding disposal.

Appropriate methods should be used for assessing exposure to potentially hazardous biologic, chemical, and physical agents where the possibility of exceeding permissible exposure limits (PELs) exists (CFR 1984b).

Animal Experimentation Involving Hazards

In selecting specific safeguards for animal experimentation with hazardous agents, careful attention should be given to procedures for animal care and housing, storage and disbursement of the agents, dose preparation and administration, body-fluid and tissue handling, waste and carcass disposal, and personal protection. Special safety equipment should be used in combination with appropriate management and safe practices. As a general rule, safety depends on trained personnel who rigorously follow safe practices.

Institutions should have written policies governing experimentation with hazardous biologic, chemical, and physical agents. An oversight process (such as use of a safety committee) should be developed to involve persons who are knowledgeable in the evaluation of hazards and safety issues. Because the use of animals in such studies requires special considerations, the procedures and facilities to be used should undergo review for specific safety concerns. Formal safety programs should be established to assess the hazards, determine the safeguards needed for their control, ensure that the staff has the necessary training and skills, and ensure that the facilities are adequate for the safe conduct of the research. Technical support should be provided to monitor and ensure compliance with institutional safety policies.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (1993) and the National Research Council (In press) recommend practices and procedures, safety equipment, and facility requirements for working with hazardous biologic agents and materials. Facilities that handle agents of unknown risk should consult with appropriate CDC personnel about hazard control and medical surveillance.

Special facilities and safety equipment are needed to protect the animal care and investigative staff, other occupants of the facility, the public, animals, and the environment from exposure to hazardous biologic, chemical, and physical agents used in animal experimentation. Facilities used for animal experimentation with hazardous agents should be separated from other animal housing and support areas, research and clinical laboratories, and patient-care facilities and should be appropriately identified; and access to them should be limited to authorized personnel. Such facilities should be designed and constructed to facilitate cleaning and maintenance of mechanical systems. A properly managed and used double corridor facility or barrier entry system is an effective means of reducing cross-

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