contamination. Floor drains should always contain liquid or be sealed effectively by other means. Automatic trap priming can be provided to ensure that traps remain filled.

Hazardous agents should be contained within the study environment. Control of airflow (such as through the use of biologic-safety cabinets) that minimizes the escape of contaminants is a primary barrier used in the handling and administration of hazardous agents and the performance of necropsies on contaminated animals (CDC 1995; Kruse and others 1991). Special features of the facility-such as airlocks, negative air pressure, air filters, and redundant mechanical equipment with automatic switching-are secondary barriers aimed at preventing accidental release of hazards outside the facility and work environment.

Exposure to anesthetic waste gases should be limited. This is usually accomplished by using various scavenging techniques. If ether is used, personnel safety should be ensured by proper use of signs and by using equipment and practices to minimize risks associated with its explosiveness.

Personal Protection

Personal protective equipment should be provided, and other safety measures should be adopted when needed. Animal care personnel should wear appropriate institution-issued protective clothing, shoes or shoe covers, and gloves. Clean protective clothing should be provided as often as necessary. If it is appropriate, personnel should shower when they leave the animal care, procedure, or dose-preparation areas. Protective clothing and equipment should not be worn beyond the boundary of the hazardous-agent work area or the animal facility. Personnel with potential exposure to hazardous agents should be provided with personal protective equipment appropriate to the agents (CFR 1984c). For example, personnel exposed to nonhuman primates should be provided with such protective items as gloves, arm protectors, masks, and face shields. Hearing protection should be provided in high-noise areas. Personnel working in areas where they might be exposed to contaminated airborne particulate material or vapors should be provided with suitable respiratory protection (CFR 1984c).

Medical Evaluation and Preventive Medicine for Personnel

Development and implementation of a program of medical evaluation and preventive medicine should involve input from trained health professionals, such as occupational health physicians and nurses. Confidentiality and other medical and legal factors must be considered in the context of appropriate federal, state, and local regulations.

A health-history evaluation before work assignment is advisable to assess potential risks for individual employees. Periodic medical evaluations are advis-



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