able for people in some risk categories. An appropriate immunization schedule should be adopted. It is important to immunize animal care personnel against tetanus. In addition, pre-exposure immunization should be offered to people at risk of infection or exposure to such agents as rabies or hepatitis B virus. Vaccination is recommended if research is to be conducted on infectious diseases for which effective vaccines are available. Specific recommendations can be found in the CDC and NIH publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (1993). Pre-employment or pre-exposure serum collection is advisable only in specific circumstances as determined by an occupational health and safety professional (NRC In press). In such cases, identification, traceability, retention, and storage conditions of samples should be considered and the purpose for which the serum samples will be used must be consistent with applicable state laws and consistent with the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Federal Register 56(117): 28002-28032, June 18, 1991).

Zoonosis surveillance should be a part of an occupational health program (CDC and NIH 1993; Fox and others 1984; NRC In press). Personnel should be instructed to notify their supervisors of potential or known exposures and of suspected health hazards and illnesses. Clear procedures should be established for reporting all accidents, bites, scratches. and allergic reactions (NRC In press).

Nonhuman-primate diseases that are transmissible to humans can be serious hazards. Animal technicians, clinicians, investigators, predoctoral and postdoctoral trainees, research technicians, consultants, maintenance workers, security personnel, and others who have contact with nonhuman primates or have duties in nonhuman-primate housing areas should be routinely screened for tuberculosis. Because of the potential for Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (formerly Herpesvirus simiae) exposure, personnel who work with macaques should have access to and be instructed in the use of bite and scratch emergency-care stations (Holmes and others 1995). A procedure should be established for ensuring medical care for bites and scratches.

REFERENCES

AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association). 1995. Accredited programs in veterinary technology. Pp.236-240 in 1995 AVMA Membership Directory and Resource Manual. 44th ed. Schaumburg. Ill.: AVMA.


Bryant. J. M. 1980. Vest and tethering system to accommodate catheters and a temperature monitor for nonhuman primates. Lab. Anim. Sci. 30(4. Part I):706-705.

Byrd. L. D. 1979. A tethering system for direct measurement of cardiovascular function in the caged baboon. Am. J. Physiol. 236:H775-H779.


CCAC (Canadian Council on Animal Care) 1993. Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals. Vol. 1.2nd ed. E. D. Olfert. B. M. Cross. and A. A. McWilliam. eds. Ontario. Canada: Canadian Council on Animal Care. 211 pp.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and NIH (National Institutes of Health). 1993. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. 3rd ed. HHS Publication No. (CDC) 93-8395, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.



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