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2 Animal Environment, Housing, and Management Proper housing and management of animal facilities are essential to animal well-being, to the quality of research data and teaching or testing programs in which animals are used, and to the health and safety of personnel. A good management program provides the environment, housing, and care that permit animals to grow, mature, reproduce, and maintain good health; provides for their well-being; and minimizes variations that can affect research results. Specific operating practices depend on many factors that are peculiar to individual institutions and situations. Well-trained and motivated personnel can often ensure high-quality animal care, even in institutions with less than optimal physical plants or equipment. Many factors should be considered in planning for adequate and appropriate physical and social environment, housing, space, and management. These include The species, strain, and breed of the animal and individual characteristics, such as sex, age, size, behavior, experiences, and health. The ability of the animals to form social groups with conspecifics through sight, smell, and possibly contact, whether the animals are maintained singly or in groups. The design and construction of housing. The availability or suitability of enrichments. The project goals and experimental design (e.g., production, breeding, research, testing, and teaching).
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The intensity of animal manipulation and invasiveness of the procedures conducted. The presence of hazardous or disease-causing materials. The duration of the holding period. Animals should be housed with a goal of maximizing species-specific behaviors and minimizing stress-induced behaviors. For social species, this normally requires housing in compatible pairs or groups. A strategy for achieving desired housing should be developed by animal care personnel with review and approval by the IACUC. Decisions by the IACUC in consultation with the investigator and veterinarian, should be aimed at achieving high standards for professional and husbandry practices considered appropriate for the health and well-being of the species and consistent with the research objectives. After the decision-making process, objective assessments should be made to substantiate the adequacy of animal environment, husbandry, and management. The environment in which animals are maintained should be appropriate to the species, its life history, and its intended use. For some species, it might be appropriate to approximate the natural environment for breeding and maintenance. Expert advice might be sought for special requirements associated with the experiment or animal subject (for example, hazardous-agent use, behavioral studies, and immunocompromised animals, farm animals, and nontraditional laboratory species). The following sections discuss some considerations of the physical environment related to common research animals. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Microenvironment and Macroenvironment The microenvironment of an animal is the physical environment immediately surrounding it—the primary enclosure with its own temperature, humidity, and gaseous and particulate composition of the air. The physical environment of the secondary enclosure—such as a room, a barn, or an outdoor habitat—constitutes the macroenvironment. Although the microenvironment and the macro-environment are linked by ventilation between the primary and secondary enclosures, the environment in the primary enclosure can be quite different from the environment in the secondary enclosure and is affected by the design of both enclosures. Measurement of the characteristics of the microenvironment can be difficult in small primary enclosures. Available data indicate that temperature, humidity, and concentrations of gases and particulate matter are often higher in an animal's microenvironment than in the macroenvironment (Besch 1980; Flynn 1959; Gamble and Clough 1976; Murakami 1971; Serrano 1971). Microenvironmental
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conditions can induce changes in metabolic and physiologic processes or alterations in disease susceptibility (Broderson and others 1976; Schoeb and others 1982; Vesell and others 1976). Housing Primary Enclosures The primary enclosure (usually a cage, pen, or stall) provides the limits of an animal's immediate environment. Acceptable primary enclosures Allow for the normal physiologic and behavioral needs of the animals, including urination and defecation, maintenance of body temperature, normal movement and postural adjustments, and, where indicated, reproduction. Allow conspecific social interaction and development of hierarchies within or between enclosures. Make it possible for the animals to remain clean and dry (as consistent with the requirements of the species). Allow adequate ventilation. Allow the animals access to food and water and permit easy filling, refilling, changing, servicing, and cleaning of food and water utensils. Provide a secure environment that does not allow escape of or accidental entrapment of animals or their appendages between opposing surfaces or by structural openings. Are free of sharp edges or projections that could cause injury to the animals. Allow observation of the animals with minimal disturbance of them. Primary enclosures should be constructed with materials that balance the needs of the animal with the ability to provide for sanitation. They should have smooth, impervious surfaces with minimal ledges, angles, corners, and overlapping surfaces so that accumulation of dirt, debris, and moisture is reduced and satisfactory cleaning and disinfecting are possible. They should be constructed of durable materials that resist corrosion and withstand rough handling without chipping, cracking, or rusting. Less-durable materials, such as wood, can provide a more appropriate environment in some situations (such as runs, pens, and outdoor corrals) and can be used to construct perches, climbing structures, resting areas, and perimeter fences for primary enclosures. Wooden items might need to be replaced periodically because of damage or difficulties with sanitation. All primary enclosures should be kept in good repair to prevent escape of or injury to animals, promote physical comfort, and facilitate sanitation and servicing. Rusting or oxidized equipment that threatens the health or safety of the animals should be repaired or replaced.
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Some housing Systems have special caging and ventilation equipment, including filter-top cages, ventilated cages, isolators, and cubicles. Generally, the purpose of these systems is to minimize the spread of airborne disease agents between cages or groups of cages. They often require different husbandry practices, such as alterations in the frequency of bedding change, the use of aseptic handling techniques, and specialized cleaning, disinfecting, or sterilization regimens to prevent microbial transmission by other than the airborne route. Rodents are often housed on wire flooring, which enhances sanitation of the cage by enabling urine and feces to pass through to a collection tray. However, some evidence suggests that solid-bottom caging, with bedding, is preferred by rodents (Fullerton and Gilliatt 1967; Grover-Johnson and Spencer 1981; Ortman and others 1983). Solid-bottom caging, with bedding, is therefore recommended for rodents. Vinyl-coated flooring is often used for other species, such as dogs and nonhuman primates. IACUC review of this aspect of the animal care program should ensure that caging enhances animal well-being consistent with good sanitation and the requirements of the research project. Sheltered or Outdoor Housing Sheltered or outdoor housing—such as barns, corrals, pastures, and islands-is a common primary housing method for some species and is acceptable for many situations. In most cases, outdoor housing entails maintaining animals in groups. When animals are maintained in outdoor runs, pens, or other large enclosures, there must be protection from extremes in temperature or other harsh weather conditions and adequate protective and escape mechanisms for submissive animals. These goals can be achieved by such features as windbreaks, shelters, shaded areas, areas with forced ventilation, heat-radiating structures, or means of retreat to conditioned spaces, such as an indoor portion of a run. Shelters should be accessible to all animals, have sufficient ventilation, and be designed to prevent buildup of waste materials and excessive moisture. Houses, dens, boxes, shelves, perches, and other furnishings should be constructed in a manner and made of materials that allow cleaning or replacement in accord with generally accepted husbandry practices when the furnishings are excessively soiled or worn. Floors or ground-level surfaces of outdoor housing facilities can be covered with dirt, absorbent bedding, sand, gravel, grass, or similar material that can be removed or replaced when that is needed to ensure appropriate sanitation. Excessive buildup of animal waste and stagnant water should be avoided by, for example, using contoured or drained surfaces. Other surfaces should be able to withstand the elements and be easily maintained. Successful management of outdoor housing relies on consideration of
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An adequate acclimation period in advance of seasonal changes when animals are first introduced to outdoor housing. Training of animals to cooperate with veterinary and investigative personnel and to enter chutes or cages for restraint or transport. Species-appropriate social environment. Grouping of compatible animals. Adequate security via a perimeter fence or other means. Naturalistic Environments Areas like pastures and islands afford opportunities to provide a suitable environment for maintaining or producing animals and for some types of research. Their use results in the loss of some control over nutrition, health care and surveillance, and pedigree management. These limitations should be balanced against the benefits of having the animals live in more natural conditions. Animals should be added to, removed from, and returned to social groups in this setting with appropriate consideration of the effects on the individual animals and on the group. Adequate supplies of food, fresh water, and natural or constructed shelter should be ensured. Space Recommendations An animal's space needs are complex, and consideration of only the animal's body weight or surface area is insufficient. Therefore, the space recommendations presented here are based on professional judgment and experience and should be considered as recommendations of appropriate cage sizes for animals under conditions commonly found in laboratory animal housing facilities. Vertical height, structuring of the space, and enrichments can clearly affect animals' use of space. Some species benefit more from wall space (e.g., ''thigmotactic" rodents), shelters (e.g., some New World primates), or cage complexities (e.g., cats and chimpanzees) than from simple increases in floor space (Anzaldo and others 1994; Stricklin 1995). Thus, basing cage-size recommendations on floor space alone is inadequate. In this regard, the Guide might differ from the AWRs (see footnote 1, p.2). Space allocations should be reviewed and modified as necessary to address individual housing situations and animal needs (for example, for prenatal and postnatal care, obese animals, and group or individual housing). Such animal performance indexes as health, reproduction, growth, behavior, activity, and use of space can be used to assess the adequacy of housing. At a minimum, an animal must have enough space to turn around and to express normal postural adjustments, must have ready access to food and water, and must have enough clean-bedded or unobstructed area to move and rest in. For cats, a raised resting surface should be included in the cage. Raised resting surfaces or perches are also often
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desirable for dogs and nonhuman primates. Low resting surfaces that do not allow the space under them to be comfortably occupied by the animal should be counted as part of the floor space. Floor space taken up by food bowls, water containers, litter boxes, or other devices not intended for movement or resting should not be considered part of the floor space. The need for and type of adjustments in the amounts of primary enclosure space recommended in the tables that follow should be approved at the institutional level by the IACUC and should be based on the performance outcomes described in the preceding paragraph with due consideration of the AWRs and PHS Policy (see footnote 1, p.2). Professional judgment, surveys of the literature and current practices, and consideration of the animals' physical, behavioral, and social needs and of the nature of the protocol and its requirements might be necessary (see Crockett and others 1993, 1995). Assessment of animals' space needs should be a continuing process. With the passage of time or long-term protocols, adjustments in floor space and height should be considered and modified as necessary. It is not within the scope or size constraints of the Guide to discuss the housing requirements of all species used in research. For species not mentioned, space and height allocations for an animal of equivalent size and with a similar activity profile and similar behavior can be used as a starting point from which adjustments that take species-specific and individual needs into account can be made. Whenever it is appropriate, social animals should be housed in pairs or groups, rather than individually, provided that such housing is not contraindicated by the protocol in question and does not pose an undue risk to the animals (Brain and Bention 1979). Depending on a variety of biologic and behavioral factors, group-housed animals might need less or more total space per animal than individually housed animals. Recommendations provided below are based on the assumption that pair or group housing is generally preferable to single housing, even when members of the pair or group have slightly less space per animal than when singly caged. For example, each animal can share the space allotted to the animals with which it is housed. Furthermore, some rodents or swine housed in compatible groups seek each other out and share cage space by huddling together along walls, lying on each other during periods of rest, or gathering in areas of retreat (White 1990; White and others 1989). Cattle, sheep, and goats exhibit herding behavior and seek group associations and close physical contact. Conversely, some animals, such as various species of nonhuman primates, might need additional individual space when group-housed to reduce the level of aggression. The height of enclosures can be important in the normal behavior and postural adjustments of some species. Cage heights should take into account typical postures of an animal and provide adequate clearance for normal cage components, such as feeders and water devices, including sipper tubes. Some species of
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nonhuman primates use the vertical dimensions of the cage to a greater extent than the floor. For them, the ability to perch and to have adequate vertical space to keep the whole body above the cage floor can improve their well-being. Space allocations for animals should be based on the following tables, but might need to be increased, or decreased with approval of the IACUC, on the basis of criteria previously listed. Table 2.1 lists recommended space allocations for commonly used laboratory rodents housed in groups. If they are housed individually or exceed the weights in the table, animals might require more space. Table 2.2 lists recommended space allocations for other common laboratory animals. These allocations are based, in general, on the needs of individually housed animals. Space allocations should be re-evaluated to provide for enrichment of the primary enclosure or to accommodate animals that exceed the weights in the table. For group housing. determination of the total space needed is not necessarily based on the sum of the amounts recommended for individually housed animals. Space for group-housed animals should be based on individual species needs, behavior, compatibility of the animals, numbers of animals, and goals of the housing situation. TABLE 2.1 Recommended Space for Commonly Used Group-Housed Laboratory Rodents Animals Weight, g Floor Area/Animal, in2a Height.b inc Mice <10 6 5 Up to 15 8 5 Up to 25 12 5 >25d >15 5 Rats <100 17 7 Up to 200 23 7 Up to 300 29 7 Up to 400 40 7 Up to 500 60 7 >500d >70 7 Hamsters <60 10 6 Up to 80 13 6 Up to 100 16 6 >100d >19 6 Guinea pigs <350 60 7 >350d >101 7 a To convert square inches to square centimeters. multiply by 6.45. b From cage floor to cage top. c To convert inches to centimeters. multiply by 2.54. d Larger animals might require more space to meet the performance standards (see text).
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TABLE 2.2 Recommended Space for Rabbits, Cats, Dogs, Nonhuman Primates, and Birds Animals Weight, kga Floor Area/Animal, ft2 b Heightcind Rabbits <2 1.5 14 Up to 4 3.0 14 Up to 5.4 4.0 14 >5.4e >5.0 14 Cats <4 3.0 24 >4e >4.0 24 Dogsf <15 8.0 - Up to 30 12.0 - >30e >24.0 - Monkeysg, h (including baboons) Group 1 Up to 1 1.6 20 Group 2 Up to 3 3.0 30 Group 3 Up to 10 4.3 30 Group 4 Up to 15 6.0 32 Group 5 Up to 25 8.0 36 Group 6 Up to 30 10.0 46 Group 7 >30e 15.0 46 Apes (pongidae)h Group 1 Up to 20 10.0 55 Group 2 Up to 35 15.0 60 Group 3 >35i 25.0 84 Pigeonsj - 0.8 - Quailj - 0.25 - Chickensj <0.25 0.25 - Up to 0.5 0.50 - Up to 1.5 1.00 - Up to 3.0 2.00 - >3.0e >3.00 - Table 2.3 lists recommended space allocations for farm animals commonly used in a laboratory setting. When animals, housed individually or in groups, exceed the weights in the table, more space might be required. If they are group-housed, adequate access to water and feeder space should be provided (Larson and Hegg 1976; Midwest Plan Service 1987). Temperature and Humidity Regulation of body temperature within normal variation is necessary for the well-being of homeotherms. Generally, exposure of unadapted animals to temperatures above 85ºF (29.4ºC) or below 40ºF (4.4ºC), without access to shelter or other protective mechanisms, might produce clinical effects (Gordon 1990),
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a To convert kilograms to pounds, multiply by 2.2. b To convert square feet to square meters, multiply by 0.09. c From cage floor to cage top. d To convert inches to centimeters. multiply by 2.54. e Larger animals might require more space to meet performance standards (see text). f These recommendations might require modification according to body conformation of individual animals and breeds. Some dogs, especially those toward upper limit of each weight range, might require additional space to ensure compliance with the regulations of the Animal Welfare Act. These regulations (CFR 1985) mandate that the height of each cage be sufficient to allow occupant to stand in "comfortable position" and that the minimal square feet of floor space be equal to "mathematical square of the sum of the length of the dog in inches (measured from the tip of its nose to the base of its tail) plus 6 inches; then divide the product by 144." g Callitrichidae, Cebidae. Cercopithecidae, and Papio. Baboons might require more height than other monkeys. h For some species (e.g., Brachyreles, Hylobares, Symphalangus, Pongo, and Pan), cage height should be such that an animal can, when fully extended, swing from the cage ceiling without having its feet touch the floor. Cage-ceiling design should enhance brachiating movement. i Apes weighing over 50 kg are more effectively housed in permanent housing of masonry, concrete, and wire-panel structure than in conventional caging. j Cage height should be sufficient for the animals to stand erect with their feet on the floor. which could be life-threatening. Animals can adapt to extremes by behavioral, physiologic, and morphologic mechanisms, but such adaptation takes time and might alter protocol outcomes or otherwise affect performance (Garrard and others 1974; Gordon 1993; Pennycuik 1967). Environmental temperature and relative humidity can depend on husbandry and housing design and can differ considerably between primary and secondary enclosures. Factors that contribute to variation in temperature and humidity include housing material and construction, use of filter tops, number of animals per cage, forced ventilation of the enclosures, frequency of bedding changes, and bedding type. Some conditions might require increased environmental temperatures, such as postoperative recovery, maintenance of chicks for the first few days after hatching, housing of some hairless rodents, and housing of neonates that have been separated from their mothers. The magnitude of the temperature increase depends on the circumstances of housing; sometimes, raising the temperature in the primary enclosure alone (rather than raising the temperature of the secondary enclosure) is sufficient. In the absence of well-controlled studies, professional judgment and experience have resulted in recommendations for dry-bulb temperatures (Table 2.4) for several common species. In the case of animals in confined spaces, the range of
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TABLE 2.3 Recommended Space for Commonly Used Farm Animals Animals/Enclosure Weight. kga Floor Area/Animal. ft2 b Sheep and Goats 1 <25 10.0 Up to 50 15.0 >50c 20.0 2-5 <25 8.5 Up to 50 12.5 >50c 17.0 >5 <25 7.5 Up to 50 11.3 >50c 15.0 Swine 1 <15 8.0 Up to 25 12.0 Up to 50 15.0 Up to 100 24.0 Up to 200 48.0 >200c >60.0 2-5 <25 6.0 Up to 50 10.0 Up to 100 20.0 Up to 200 40.0 >200c >52.0 >5 <25 6.0 Up to 50 9.0 Up to 100 18.0 Up to 200 36.0 >200c >48.0 daily temperature fluctuations should be kept to a minimum to avoid repeated large demands on the animals' metabolic and behavioral processes to compensate for changes in the thermal environment. Relative humidity should also be controlled, but not nearly as narrowly as temperature; the acceptable range of relative humidity is 30 to 70%. The temperature ranges in Table 2.4 might not apply to captive wild animals, wild animals maintained in their natural environment, or animals in outdoor enclosures that are given the opportunity to adapt by being exposed to seasonal changes in ambient conditions. Ventilation The purposes of ventilation are to supply adequate oxygen; remove thermal loads caused by animal respiration, lights, and equipment; dilute gaseous and particulate contaminants; adjust the moisture content of room air; and, where
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Animals/Enclosure Weight. kga Floor Area/Animal, ft2 b Cattle 1 <75 24.0 Up to 200 48.0 Up to 350 72.0 Up to 500 96.0 Up to 650 124.0 >650c >144.0 2-5 <75 20.0 Up to 200 40.0 Up to 350 60.0 Up to 500 80.0 Up to 650 105.0 >650c >120.0 >5 <75 18.0 Up to 200 36.0 Up to 350 54.0 Up to 500 72.0 Up to 650 93.0 >650c >108.0 Horses — 144.0 Ponies 1-4 — 72.0 >4/Pen <200 60.0 >200c >72.0 a To convert kilograms to pounds. multiply by 2.2. b To convert square feet to square meters. multiply by 0.09. c Larger animals might require more space to meet performance standards (see text). appropriate, create static-pressure differentials between adjoining spaces. Establishing a room ventilation rate, however, does not ensure the adequacy of the ventilation of an animal's primary enclosure and hence does not guarantee the quality of the microenvironment. The degree to which air movement (drafts) causes discomfort or biologic consequences has not been established for most species. The volume and physical characteristics of the air supplied to a room and its diffusion pattern influence the ventilation of an animal's primary enclosure and so are important determinants of its microenvironment. The relationship of the type and location of supply air diffusers and exhaust vents to the number, arrangement, location, and type of primary enclosures in a room or other secondary enclosure affects how well the primary enclosures are ventilated and should therefore be considered. The use of computer modeling for assessing those factors in relation to heat loading and air diffusion patterns can be helpful in optimizing ventilation of primary and
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provide some assurance of regulatory compliance and safety. On-site incineration should comply with all federal, state, and local regulations. Adequate numbers of properly labeled waste receptacles should be strategically placed throughout the facility. Waste containers should be leakproof and equipped with tight-fitting lids. It is good practice to use disposable liners and to wash containers and implements regularly. There should be a dedicated wastestorage area that can be kept free of insects and other vermin. If cold storage is used to hold material before disposal, a properly labeled, dedicated refrigerator, freezer, or cold room should be used. Hazardous wastes must be rendered safe by sterilization, containment, or other appropriate means before being removed from the facility (US EPA 1986). Radioactive wastes should be maintained in properly labeled containers. Their disposal should be closely coordinated with radiation-safety specialists in accord with federal and state regulations. The federal government and most states and municipalities have regulations controlling disposal of hazardous wastes. Compliance with regulations concerning hazardous-agent use (Chapter 1) and disposal is an institutional responsibility. Infectious animal carcasses can be incinerated on-site or collected by a licensed contractor. Procedures for on-site packaging, labeling, transportation, and storage of these wastes should be integrated into occupational health and safety policies. Hazardous wastes that are toxic, carcinogenic, flammable, corrosive, reactive, or otherwise unstable should be placed in properly labeled containers and disposed of as recommended by occupational health and safety specialists. In some circumstances, these wastes can be consolidated or blended. Pest Control Programs designed to prevent, control, or eliminate the presence of or infestation by pests are essential in an animal environment. A regularly scheduled and documented program of control and monitoring should be implemented. The ideal program prevents the entry of vermin into and eliminates harborage from the facility. For animals in outdoor facilities, consideration should also be given to eliminating or minimizing the potential risk associated with pests and predators. Pesticides can induce toxic effects on research animals and interfere with experimental procedures (Ohio Cooperative Extension Service 1987a,b), and they should be used in animal areas only when necessary. Investigators whose animals might be exposed to pesticides should be consulted before pesticides are used. Use of pesticides should be recorded and coordinated with the animal care management staff and be in compliance with federal, state, or local regulations. Whenever possible, nontoxic means of pest control, such as insect growth regulators (Donahue and others 1989; Garg and Donahue 1989; King and Bennett 1989) and nontoxic substances (for example, amorphous silica gel), should be
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used. If traps are used, methods should be humane; traps used to catch pests alive require frequent observation and humane euthanasia after capture. Emergency, Weekend, and Holiday Care Animals should be cared for by qualified personnel every day, including weekends and holidays, both to safeguard their well-being and to satisfy research requirements. Emergency veterinary care should be available after work hours, on weekends, and on holidays. In the event of an emergency, institutional security personnel and fire or police officials should be able to reach people responsible for the animals. That can be enhanced by prominently posting emergency procedures, names, or telephone numbers in animal facilities or by placing them in the security department or telephone center. Emergency procedures for handling special facilities or operations should be prominently posted. A disaster plan that takes into account both personnel and animals should be prepared as part of the overall safety plan for the animal facility. The colony manager or veterinarian, responsible for the animals should be a member of the appropriate safety committee at the institution. He or she should be an "official responder" within the institution and should participate in the response to a disaster (Casper 1991). POPULATION MANAGEMENT Identification and Records Means of animal identification include room, rack, pen, stall, and cage cards with written or bar-coded information; collars, bands, plates, and tabs; colored stains; ear notches and tags; tattoos; subcutaneous transponders; and freeze brands. Toe-clipping, as a method of identification of small rodents, should be used only when no other individual identification method is feasible and should be performed only on altricial neonates. Identification cards should include the source of the animal, the strain or stock, names and locations of the responsible investigators, pertinent dates, and protocol number, when applicable. Animal records are useful and can vary in type, ranging from limited information on identification cards to detailed computerized records for individual animals. Clinical records for individual animals can also be valuable, especially for dogs, cats, nonhuman primates, and farm animals. They should include pertinent clinical and diagnostic information, date of inoculations, history of surgical procedures and postoperative care, and information on experimental use. Basic demographic information and clinical histories enhance the value of individual animals for both breeding and research and should be readily accessible to investigators, veterinary staff, and animal care staff. Records of rearing histories, mat-
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ing histories, and behavioral profiles are useful for the management of many species, especially nonhuman primates (NRC 1979a). Records containing basic descriptive information are essential for management of colonies of large long-lived animals and should be maintained for each animal (Dyke 1993; NRC 1979a). These records often include species, animal identifier, sire identifier, dam identifier, sex, birth or acquisition date, source, exit date, and final disposition. Such animal records are essential for genetic management and historical assessments of colonies. Relevant recorded information should be provided when animals are transferred between institutions. Genetics and Nomenclature Genetic characteristics are important in regard to the selection and management of animals for use in breeding colonies and in biomedical research (see Appendix A). Pedigree information allows appropriate selection of breeding pairs and of experimental animals that are unrelated or of known relatedness. Outbred animals are widely used in biomedical research. Founding populations should be large enough to ensure the long-term heterogeneity of breeding colonies. To facilitate direct comparison of research data derived from outbred animals, genetic-management techniques should be used to maintain genetic variability and equalize founder representations (for example, Lacy 1989; Poiley 1960; Williams-Blangero 1991). Genetic variability can be monitored with computer simulations, biochemical markers, DNA markers, immunologic markers, or quantitative genetic analyses of physiologic variables (MacCluer and others 1986; Williams-Blangero 1993). Inbred strains of various species, especially rodents, have been developed to address specific research needs (Festing 1979; Gill 1980). The homozygosity of these animals enhances the reproducibility and comparability of some experimental data. It is important to monitor inbred animals periodically for genetic homozygosity (Festing 1982; Hedrich 1990). Several methods of monitoring have been developed that use immunologic, biochemical, and molecular techniques (Cramer 1983; Groen 1977; Hoffman and others 1980; Russell and others 1993). Appropriate management systems (Green 1981; Kempthome 1957) should be designed to minimize genetic contamination resulting from mutation and mismating. Transgenic animals have at least one transferred gene whose site of integration and number of integrated copies might or might not have been controlled. Integrated genes can interact with background genes and environmental factors, in part as a function of site of integration, so each transgenic animal can be considered a unique resource. Care should be taken to preserve such resources through standard genetic-management procedures, including maintenance of detailed pedigree records and genetic monitoring to verify the presence and zygosity of transgenes. Cryopreservation of fertilized embryos, ova, or spermatozoa
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Representative terms from entire chapter: