a To convert kilograms to pounds, multiply by 2.2.

b To convert square feet to square meters, multiply by 0.09.

c From cage floor to cage top.

d To convert inches to centimeters. multiply by 2.54.

e Larger animals might require more space to meet performance standards (see text).

f These recommendations might require modification according to body conformation of individual animals and breeds. Some dogs, especially those toward upper limit of each weight range, might require additional space to ensure compliance with the regulations of the Animal Welfare Act. These regulations (CFR 1985) mandate that the height of each cage be sufficient to allow occupant to stand in "comfortable position" and that the minimal square feet of floor space be equal to "mathematical square of the sum of the length of the dog in inches (measured from the tip of its nose to the base of its tail) plus 6 inches; then divide the product by 144."

g Callitrichidae, Cebidae. Cercopithecidae, and Papio. Baboons might require more height than other monkeys.

h For some species (e.g., Brachyreles, Hylobares, Symphalangus, Pongo, and Pan), cage height should be such that an animal can, when fully extended, swing from the cage ceiling without having its feet touch the floor. Cage-ceiling design should enhance brachiating movement.

i Apes weighing over 50 kg are more effectively housed in permanent housing of masonry, concrete, and wire-panel structure than in conventional caging.

j Cage height should be sufficient for the animals to stand erect with their feet on the floor.

which could be life-threatening. Animals can adapt to extremes by behavioral, physiologic, and morphologic mechanisms, but such adaptation takes time and might alter protocol outcomes or otherwise affect performance (Garrard and others 1974; Gordon 1993; Pennycuik 1967).

Environmental temperature and relative humidity can depend on husbandry and housing design and can differ considerably between primary and secondary enclosures. Factors that contribute to variation in temperature and humidity include housing material and construction, use of filter tops, number of animals per cage, forced ventilation of the enclosures, frequency of bedding changes, and bedding type.

Some conditions might require increased environmental temperatures, such as postoperative recovery, maintenance of chicks for the first few days after hatching, housing of some hairless rodents, and housing of neonates that have been separated from their mothers. The magnitude of the temperature increase depends on the circumstances of housing; sometimes, raising the temperature in the primary enclosure alone (rather than raising the temperature of the secondary enclosure) is sufficient.

In the absence of well-controlled studies, professional judgment and experience have resulted in recommendations for dry-bulb temperatures (Table 2.4) for several common species. In the case of animals in confined spaces, the range of



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