sate for the absence of other animals, such as safe and positive interaction with the care staff and enrichment of the structural environment.

Activity

Animal activity typically implies motor activity but also includes cognitive activity and social interaction. Animals maintained in a laboratory environment might have a more-restricted activity profile than those in a free-ranging state. An animal's motor activity, including use of the vertical dimension, should be considered in evaluation of suitable housing or assessment of the appropriateness of the quantity or quality of an activity displayed by an animal. Forced activity for reasons other than attempts to meet therapeutic or approved protocol objectives should be avoided. In most species, physical activity that is repetitive, is non-goal-oriented, and excludes other behavior is considered undesirable (AWIC 1992; Bayne 1991; NRC In press; see also Appendix A, ''Enrichment").

Animals should have opportunities to exhibit species-typical activity patterns. Dogs, cats, and many other domesticated animals benefit from positive human interaction (Rollin 1990). Dogs can be given opportunities for activity by being walked on a leash, having access to a run, or being moved into another area (such as a room, larger cage, or out door pen) for social contact, play, or exploration. Cages are often used for short-term housing of dogs for veterinary care and some research purposes, but pens, runs, and other out-of-cage areas provide more space for movement, and their use is encouraged (Wolff and Rupert 1991). Loafing areas, exercise lots, and pastures are suitable for large farm animals, such as sheep, horses, and cattle.

HUSBANDRY

Food

Animals should be fed palatable, noncontaminated, and nutritionally adequate food daily or according to their particular requirements unless the protocol in which they are being used requires otherwise. Subcommittees of the National Research Council Committee on Animal Nutrition have prepared comprehensive treatments of the nutrient requirements of laboratory animals (NRC 1977, 1978, 1981a,b, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985a,b, 1986, 1988, 1989a,b, 1994, 1995). Their publications consider issues of quality assurance, freedom from chemical or microbial contaminants and presence of natural toxicants in feedstuffs, bioavailability of nutrients in feeds, and palatability.

Animal-colony managers should be judicious in purchasing, transporting, storing, and handling food to minimize the introduction of diseases, parasites, potential disease vectors (e.g., insects and other vermin), and chemical contaminants into animal colonies. Purchasers are encouraged to consider manufacturers'



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