provide some assurance of regulatory compliance and safety. On-site incineration should comply with all federal, state, and local regulations.

Adequate numbers of properly labeled waste receptacles should be strategically placed throughout the facility. Waste containers should be leakproof and equipped with tight-fitting lids. It is good practice to use disposable liners and to wash containers and implements regularly. There should be a dedicated wastestorage area that can be kept free of insects and other vermin. If cold storage is used to hold material before disposal, a properly labeled, dedicated refrigerator, freezer, or cold room should be used.

Hazardous wastes must be rendered safe by sterilization, containment, or other appropriate means before being removed from the facility (US EPA 1986). Radioactive wastes should be maintained in properly labeled containers. Their disposal should be closely coordinated with radiation-safety specialists in accord with federal and state regulations. The federal government and most states and municipalities have regulations controlling disposal of hazardous wastes. Compliance with regulations concerning hazardous-agent use (Chapter 1) and disposal is an institutional responsibility.

Infectious animal carcasses can be incinerated on-site or collected by a licensed contractor. Procedures for on-site packaging, labeling, transportation, and storage of these wastes should be integrated into occupational health and safety policies.

Hazardous wastes that are toxic, carcinogenic, flammable, corrosive, reactive, or otherwise unstable should be placed in properly labeled containers and disposed of as recommended by occupational health and safety specialists. In some circumstances, these wastes can be consolidated or blended.

Pest Control

Programs designed to prevent, control, or eliminate the presence of or infestation by pests are essential in an animal environment. A regularly scheduled and documented program of control and monitoring should be implemented. The ideal program prevents the entry of vermin into and eliminates harborage from the facility. For animals in outdoor facilities, consideration should also be given to eliminating or minimizing the potential risk associated with pests and predators. Pesticides can induce toxic effects on research animals and interfere with experimental procedures (Ohio Cooperative Extension Service 1987a,b), and they should be used in animal areas only when necessary. Investigators whose animals might be exposed to pesticides should be consulted before pesticides are used. Use of pesticides should be recorded and coordinated with the animal care management staff and be in compliance with federal, state, or local regulations. Whenever possible, nontoxic means of pest control, such as insect growth regulators (Donahue and others 1989; Garg and Donahue 1989; King and Bennett 1989) and nontoxic substances (for example, amorphous silica gel), should be



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