ing histories, and behavioral profiles are useful for the management of many species, especially nonhuman primates (NRC 1979a).

Records containing basic descriptive information are essential for management of colonies of large long-lived animals and should be maintained for each animal (Dyke 1993; NRC 1979a). These records often include species, animal identifier, sire identifier, dam identifier, sex, birth or acquisition date, source, exit date, and final disposition. Such animal records are essential for genetic management and historical assessments of colonies. Relevant recorded information should be provided when animals are transferred between institutions.

Genetics and Nomenclature

Genetic characteristics are important in regard to the selection and management of animals for use in breeding colonies and in biomedical research (see Appendix A). Pedigree information allows appropriate selection of breeding pairs and of experimental animals that are unrelated or of known relatedness.

Outbred animals are widely used in biomedical research. Founding populations should be large enough to ensure the long-term heterogeneity of breeding colonies. To facilitate direct comparison of research data derived from outbred animals, genetic-management techniques should be used to maintain genetic variability and equalize founder representations (for example, Lacy 1989; Poiley 1960; Williams-Blangero 1991). Genetic variability can be monitored with computer simulations, biochemical markers, DNA markers, immunologic markers, or quantitative genetic analyses of physiologic variables (MacCluer and others 1986; Williams-Blangero 1993).

Inbred strains of various species, especially rodents, have been developed to address specific research needs (Festing 1979; Gill 1980). The homozygosity of these animals enhances the reproducibility and comparability of some experimental data. It is important to monitor inbred animals periodically for genetic homozygosity (Festing 1982; Hedrich 1990). Several methods of monitoring have been developed that use immunologic, biochemical, and molecular techniques (Cramer 1983; Groen 1977; Hoffman and others 1980; Russell and others 1993). Appropriate management systems (Green 1981; Kempthome 1957) should be designed to minimize genetic contamination resulting from mutation and mismating.

Transgenic animals have at least one transferred gene whose site of integration and number of integrated copies might or might not have been controlled. Integrated genes can interact with background genes and environmental factors, in part as a function of site of integration, so each transgenic animal can be considered a unique resource. Care should be taken to preserve such resources through standard genetic-management procedures, including maintenance of detailed pedigree records and genetic monitoring to verify the presence and zygosity of transgenes. Cryopreservation of fertilized embryos, ova, or spermatozoa



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