ment Handbook (1987) and from agricultural engineers or animal-science experts at state agricultural extension services and land-grant colleges and universities.

NONTRADITIONAL SPECIES

A species not commonly used in biomedical research is sometimes the animal model of choice because of its unique characteristics. For example, hibernation can be studied only in species that hibernate. An appropriate environment should be provided for nontraditional species, and for some species it might be necessary to approximate the natural habitat. Expert advice on the natural history and behavior of nontraditional species should be sought when such animals are to be introduced into a research environment. Because of the large number of nontraditional species and their varied requirements, this Guide cannot provide husbandry details appropriate to all such species. However, several scientific organizations have developed guides for particular species of nontraditional animals (e.g., ILAR and the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, SCAW). A partial list of sources is available in Appendix A.

FIELD INVESTIGATIONS

Biomedical and behavioral investigations occasionally involve observation or use of vertebrate animals under field conditions. Although some of the recommendations listed in this volume are not applicable to field conditions, the basic principles of humane care and use apply to the use of animals living in natural conditions.

Investigators conducting field studies with animals should assure their IACUC that collection of specimens or invasive procedures will comply with state and federal regulations and this Guide. Zoonoses and occupational health and safety issues should be reviewed by the IACUC to ensure that field studies do not compromise the health and safety of other animals or persons working in the field. Guidelines for using animals in field studies prepared by professional societies are useful when they adhere to the humane principles of the U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training (Appendix D) and this Guide (see Appendix A, "Exotic; Wild, and Zoo Animals" and "Other Animals").

OVERVIEW

In an attempt to facilitate its usefulness and ease in locating specific topics, the organization of this edition of the Guide is slightly different from that of the preceding edition. Material from the preceding edition's Chapter 5, "Special Considerations," has been incorporated into Chapters 1-4. Genetics and nomenclature are now discussed in Chapter 2; facilities and procedures for animal



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