and timely delivery of veterinary medical care. Animals that show signs of a contagious disease should be isolated from healthy animals in the colony. If an entire room of animals is known or believed to be exposed to an infectious agent (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis in nonhuman primates), the group should be kept intact during the process of diagnosis, treatment, and control.

Methods of disease prevention, diagnosis, and therapy should be those currently accepted in veterinary practice. Diagnostic laboratory services facilitate veterinary medical care and can include gross and microscopic pathology, clinical pathology, hematology, microbiology, clinical chemistry, and serology. The choice of medication or therapy should be made by the veterinarian in consultation with the investigator. The selected treatment plan should be therapeutically sound and, when possible, should cause no undesirable experimental variable.

Subclinical microbial, particularly viral, infections (see Appendix A ) occur frequently in conventionally maintained rodents but also can occur in facilities designed and maintained for production and use of pathogen-free rodents if a component of the microbial barrier is breached. Examples of infectious agents that can be subclinical but induce profound immunologic changes or alter physiologic, pharmacologic, or toxicologic responses are Sendai virus, Kilham rat virus, mouse hepatitis virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and Mycoplasma pulinonis (NRC 199 la,b). Scientific objectives of a particular protocol, the consequences of infection within a specific strain of rodent, and the adverse effects that infectious agents might have on other protocols in a facility should determine the characteristics of rodent health-surveillance programs and strategies for keeping rodents free of specific pathogens.

The principal method for detecting viral infections is serologic testing. Other methods of detecting microbial infections, such as bacterial culturing and histopathology and DNA analysis using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), should be used in combinations that are most suitable for specific requirements of clinical and research programs. Transplantable tumors, hybridomas, cell lines, and other biologic materials can be sources of murine viruses that can contaminate rodents (Nicklas and others 1993). The mouse-antibody-production (MAP), rat-antibody-production (RAP), and hamster-antibody-production (HAP) tests are effective in monitoring for viral contamination of biologic materials (de Souza and Smith 1989; NRC 1991c) and should be considered.

SURGERY

Appropriate attention to presurgical planning, personnel training, aseptic and surgical technique, animal well-being, and animal physiologic status during all phases of a protocol will enhance the outcome of surgery (see Appendix A, ''Anesthesia, Pain, and Surgery"). The individual impact of those factors will vary according to the complexity of procedures involved and the species of animal used. A team approach to a surgical project often increases the likelihood



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