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Chromosomea physical structure in the cell nucleus, made of DNA, RNA, and proteins. The genes are arranged in linear order along the chromosome.

Ceiling principlea procedure for setting a minimum profile frequency. One hundred persons from each of 15-20 genetically homogeneous populations spanning the range of racial groups in the United States are sampled. For each allele, the highest frequency among the groups sampled, or 5%, whichever is larger, is used for calculations. (cf. interim ceiling principle)

Confidence interval, confidence limitsAn interval, based on a sample, that is expected to include the population mean value a specified proportion of the time. 100(1-a)% confidence limits are expected to include the population value 100(1-a)% of the time. Conventional values are 90% (a = 0.10), 95%, and 99%.

Conservativefavoring the defendant. A conservative estimate is deliberately chosen to be more favorable to the defendant than the best (unbiased) estimate would be.

Convenience samplea sample chosen because of availability or similar reason; not a random sample.

Covariance (Cov, C)for paired numbers, the average of the product of the deviation from its mean of each member of a pair.

Crossing overthe exchange of parts between homologous chromosomes during meiosis; recombination.

Cytosine—a pyrimidine base; one of the constituents of DNA; abbreviated C.


Degradationthe breaking down of DNA by chemical or physical means.

Denaturationseparation of a double stranded DNA into single strands.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)the genetic material; a double helix composed of two complementary chains of paired nucleotides.

Diploidhaving two sets of chromosomes (cf. haploid).

DNA polymerasethe enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of double-stranded DNA.

DNA probesee probe.


EDTAa preservative added to blood samples.

Electrophoresisa technique in which different molecules are separated by their rate of movement in an electric field.

Enzymea protein that is capable of speeding up, and therefore facilitating, a specific chemical reaction; a biological catalyst.

Ethidium bromidea molecule that binds to DNA and fluoresces under ultraviolet light; used to identify DNA.


F statisticsWright's measures of inbreeding and population structure; in this report population subdivision is measured by FST or image.


Gametea haploid reproductive cell; sperm or egg.

Gametic equilibriumsee linkage equilibrium.

Gela semisolid medium used to separate molecules by electrophoresis.

Genethe basic unit of heredity; a functional sequence of DNA in a chromosome.

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