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Replicationthe synthesis of new DNA from existing DNA.

Restriction enzyme, restriction endonucleasean enzyme that cuts a DNA molecule at a specified short base sequence.

Restriction fragment length polymorphismvariation in the length of a stretch of DNA; abbreviated RFLP.

Ribonucleic acida class of nucleic acid; it is synthesized from DNA and is part of the process of translating a DNA sequence into a phenotype; abbreviated RNA.


Sex chromosomesthe X and Y chromosomes.

Short tandem repeata tandem repeat in which the repeat units are three, four, or five base pairs; abbreviated STR.

Significant, statistically significanttwo values are significantly different if the probability of obtaining a difference as large as or larger than that found is less than a when the true difference is zero. Conventionally, a is taken as 0.05, although other values, such as 0.01, are also used.

Somatic cellscells other than those in the cellular ancestry of egg and sperm.

Southern blottingthe technique for transferring DNA fragments that have been separated by electrophoresis from the gel to a nylon membrane.

Standard deviationthe square root of the variance; abbreviated s or s.


Tandem repeatmultiple copies of an identical DNA sequence arranged in direct succession in a particular region of the chromosome.

Thyminea pyrimidine base; one of the constituents of DNA; abbreviated T.


Variable number of tandem repeatsrepeating units of a DNA sequence; a class of RFLPs; abbreviated VNTR.

Variance (Var, V)—for a series of numbers, the average of the squared deviation of each number from the mean.


Zygotethe diploid cell resulting from the fusion of egg and sperm.

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