Page 242

Arizona, 191 n.78, 205, 210

Arkansas, 206, 210

B

Base pairs, 12-13, 14, 61-62, 65 214

Bayes' theorem, 32-33, 131-133, 164-165, 201

Behavioral research, 8, 42, 199, 203-204

Binning, see VNTR typing

Black populations

allelic frequencies, 22, 90, 91, 92, 95, 112

databases, 93 n.2, 127

STR diversity, 119

geographic variability, 149-150

HW proportions, 93, 104

likelihood ratios, 115-116

linkage disequilibrium in, 27, 111

origins, 99

Blood groups, M-N, frequencies, 94

C

Calculations and equations

allele frequency, 148

Bayes' theorem, 32-33, 131-133, 164-165

"birthday problem," 165

conditional probabilities, 114-116

confidence limits for match probabilities, 147, 159-160

conservatism, 111

database searches and, 7, 134-135, 163-165

error rates in, 85-87

exclusion power of a locus, 96

floating bin, 142-143

genotype frequencies, 26

HW expectations, 28, 38, 92, 93 n.2, 148

inadequate database and, 6

inbreeding coefficient, 98-99, 216

issues, 50

likelihood ratio, 128, 163

match probability, 10, 29-30, 32, 39, 45, 46, 52, 111, 114-116, 129-130, 139, 147, 161

measurement standard deviation, 140-141

from population-average allele frequencies, 100, 108

population-structure, 6, 38, 114-116

population subdivision effects, 29-30, 38, 102-104, 114-116, 123-124, 160

product rule, 5, 6, 27, 28, 45, 53, 110, 112, 114, 156, 157, 160

of profile frequencies, 5-6, 28, 122, 163-165

racially mixed databases, 5, 6-7, 38, 99-100, 122, 163-165

recommendations, 5-6, 7, 122, 161

relatives of suspects, 6, 39, 113

2p rule, 5, 29, 38, 45, 104-105, 111, 112, 114, 119-120, 122, 154, 157, 162

uncertainties in, 10, 112

uncertainty windows, 145

uniqueness, 33, 137, 165

VNTR uncertainty windows, 7, 145

Wright's algorithm, 113

Wright's fixation index, 102

California, 206, 210

Cases

Ake v Oklahoma, 181-182, 183 n.55

Andrews v State, 174 n.18

Arizona v Youngblood, 184 n.61

Barnes v State, 180 n.41

Blige v State, 206

Brim v State, 189 n.71

Cade v State, 182 n.49

Caldwell v State, 174 n.20 206

California v Trombetta, 184 n.60

Campbell v State

Clarke v State, 178 n.32, 208

Cobey v State, 174 n.19, 207

Commonwealth v Beausoleil, 202 n.100

Commonwealth v Crews, 193 n.80, 194 n.83, 198 n.92 201 n.99, 208

Commonwealth v Curnin, 175 n.21, 180 n.41, 196-197

Commonwealth v Gleniewicz, 184 n.62

Commonwealth v Lanigan, 189 n.71, 190 nn.74, 77, 191 n.78, 207

Commonwealth v Pestinikis, 174 n.18

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