Alaska

meteorological network, 88, 89

precipitation, 55, 73, 77-78

temperatures, 81, 82, 84, 88, 89, 475, 476

Albedo, planetary, See also Atmospheric albedo 94;

Ice-albedo feedback;

Surface albedo

Alerce trees (Fitzroya cupressoides), 494

Aleutian Low System, 134, 137, 139, 146, 475, 476, 478, 479, 480, 481

Algal blooms, 568-569

Allerød-Bølling interstadial complex, 552

Along-Track Scanning Radiometer, 508

Analysis of Rapid and Recent Climate Change (ARRCC), 196, 198, 431

Antarctic Bottom Water, 366, 384, 385, 388, 396, 537

Antarctic Circumpolar Current, 119, 140, 351, 371, 388, 395, 397, 401-402, 403, 406, 527, 528

Antarctic Intermediate Water, 385, 537

Antarctica

ice, 208, 272

ice cores, 55, 119, 493

meteorological network, 201

snow cover, 50, 59

Anthropogenic changes to climate

distinguishing between natural changes and, 7, 562, 567

modeling, 421, 430

and precipitation changes, 15

Arabian Sea, 53

Arctic

climate cycle, 121, 129, 130, 237, 254-257, 261

fresh-water transport from, 313, 379-380

sea-level pressure, 260

sea ice, 243, 258, 260, 367

temperatures, 219

Arctic Climate Change Program (ACCP), 423-425

Arctic Climate System (ACSYS), 55

Arctic Institute, 252

Arctic Intermediate Water, 263, 309, 316, 383

Arctic Ocean

air temperature, 436

circulation, 289

Eurasian Basin, 286, 287

fresh-water, 311, 315

runoff into, 129, 254-255, 257, 258-259, 262, 312, 314

salinity, 322

sea ice, 254, 424

snow, 62

temperatures, 31

tracer studies, 286

Arctic Red River (city), 257

Assessment of climate change.

See also Climate-signal detection;

Instrumental record;

Models/modeling

difficulties, 6-7, 13

information sources, 2, 6

measures of change, 6

observational data plus models, 601-602

spatial dependency, 7, 30

statistical characterizations, 7

Atbara, 35

Atlantic Climate Change Program, 239, 421, 423-425

Atlantic Deep Western Boundary Current, 236, 239, 283-285, 289, 424

Atlantic Ocean.

See also North Atlantic Ocean

deep water, 303

eastern subtropical, 130

heat transport, 191, 529

models, 140, 385-397

overturning, 532

salinity, 386, 402-403, 404

surface properties, 21

temperature, 246, 260, 386, 509-510

water-mass distribution, 385

water properties, 21

wind stress, 386

Atlantic Voluntary Observing Ships Special Observing Project, 424

Atmospheric (cloud) albedo, 93, 94, 165

Atmospheric circulation.

See also Coupled atmospheric-oceanic circulation systems;

Winds;

specific features

anticyclones, 90, 116-118, 128, 132, 255, 475

biennial-scale fluctuations, 128

century-scale variations, 117-118

cyclonic, 127, 357, 360, 362

data sources, 112, 113, 117-118

decadal-scale fluctuations, 13, 116-117, 128, 189

double jet structure, 119

eddy vorticity fluxes, 478

equivalent-barotropic vertical structure, 112, 113, 116, 118

glacial-to-interglacial transition, 552, 553

Hadley cell, 41, 193, 194

and heat-flux anomalies, 119, 128, 136-139, 147-148

inherent variability in, 188-190

interannual variations, 111-116

mechanisms, 115-116

momentum flux, 115

and North Atlantic climate, 124-128, 424

North Pacific climate, 21, 347, 472-474, 476-477

Northern Hemisphere, 121

and oceanic circulation, 399

phase lags, 114

pressure and, 112, 116-117, 118, 128

proxy data on, 112, 117-118, 119

and rainfall, 41, 42, 117

and salinity, 294

and sea surface temperature, 124-128, 261, 327, 414, 424

snow cover and, 50-58, 414

Southern Hemisphere, 111-119

storm tracks, 115-116, 118, 119, 137, 473, 478

temperature and, 116, 117-118, 261

transient eddy activity, 115-116

upper-air data, 112-116

Walker circulation, 41, 356, 499

wave trains, 114-115, 116, 118

wind-stress curl, 272, 386

zonally symmetric modes, 113-114, 115-116, 118, 165

Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project, 399, 400

Atmospheric models/modeling.

See also Coupled general-circulation models;

General-circulation models

applications, 164-168, 601

baroclinic flow, 166

cloud component, 430

constraints on, 426-427

detection of forced climate signals, 175-181

deterministic, 171-172

greenhouse effect, 169-174

natural climate variability, 169-174

one-dimensional, 165

optimal filters, 177-178, 179

paleoclimatic data interpretation, 167-174

primitive-equation, 399, 426-427

sensitivity, 601

tritium fluxes, 277

types, 11, 164-166, 354

U.K. Meteorological Office Unified Model, 250

validation, 166-168, 425-426

zero-dimensional, 164-165

Atmospheric temperature.

See Air temperature

Australia

atmospheric circulation, 113, 116, 118, 119



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