Bureau of Meteorology, 116

meteorological network, 88, 113

National Climate Centre, 81

rainfall, 117

temperatures, 81, 82, 84, 85, 88

B

Baffin Bay, 130, 296

Baffin Island, 309

Baffin Island Current, 296

Bali, 500

Baltic Sea, 260, 265, 266, 267, 272

Banjul, 35

Barbados, 505

Barents Sea, 131, 254, 258, 287, 306, 325

Barium, in corals, 498

Barnes Ice Cap, 554

Barometric pressure. See Pressure

Beaufort gyre, 255, 258, 312

Beaufort Sea, 255, 257, 258, 262, 312, 314

Beaufort shelf, 257

Bedford Institute of Oceanography, 297

Bering Sea, 473

Bermuda, 270, 272, 319, 324, 499

Bermuda High, 510-511

Bermuda rise, 542

Bilma, 35

Biogeochemical processes, 351, 555-571

Biomass burning, 94

Bodö, Norway, 366

Bombay, India

mean sea level pressure, 461-463, 464, 465, 468

temperature, 462, 468

Bristlecone pines, 494

C

Cadmium, in corals, 498

California

coastal heat exchanges, 142-143, 144-145

El Niño, 565, 568, 582

fishery data, 560-561, 564-567

temperatures, 473

wind stress, 473

California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations, 564-566

California Current, 130, 303, 457, 561, 564-565, 582

Camp Century, Greenland, 24

Canada

cloud cover, 92

meteorological network, 69-71, 73, 88-89

precipitation, 55, 67-69, 71, 74, 75-76, 255, 600

rainfall, 71, 76

runoff, 254

snowfall, 73, 76, 79

streamflows, 76

temperatures, 24, 27, 28, 67, 81, 82, 84, 88-89, 200, 201, 202, 206

winds, 255

Canada basin, 258

Canadian Arctic Archipelago, 255

Canadian Climate Center, 119

Canadian high Arctic, 259

Caño, Costa Rica, 503

Cape Century, 367, 370

Cape Farewell, 295, 306

Cape Hope, 537

Carbon cycle, 8, 105, 557, 559-560

Carbon dioxide, atmospheric

air temperature and, 57, 90, 92-93, 96, 97-99, 105-106, 167-168, 178, 183, 207, 493, 533-534, 573-574

carbon-14 values, 279

and climate-change detection, 209

doubling, 18, 56, 57, 90, 92-93, 96, 167-168, 178, 183, 188, 196

and ENSO events, 105

ice-core records, 194-195, 493

interannual variations, 105

periodicities, 97-99, 106

surface temperatures and, 195-196

Carbon-isotope studies, 276, 279, 388, 496

Carbon tetrachloride, 275, 276, 279, 282

Carbonaceous aerosols, 94

Caribbean islands, 498

Caspian Sea, 242

Cave deposits, 491

Cebu Island, 498

Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions (COLA), 46

Centre for Climate and Global Change Research, 131

Chad, Lake, 38, 493, 509-510

Charleston, South Carolina, 272, 312

Charlie-Gibbs fracture zone water, 282-283, 291, 297, 302

Chemical Manufacturers Association, 277

China

cloud cover, 92

ice cores, 27-28, 29

meteorological network, 88, 89

rainfall, 45, 48

snowfall, 55, 58

temperatures, 81, 82, 84, 88, 89, 200, 201, 517

Chlorofluorocarbons, tracer studies, 275-276, 277-279, 281-282, 283 -286

Chlorophyll, 473

Chukchi Sea, 312

Circulation. See Atmospheric circulation;

Ocean circulation

Circumpolar Deep Water, 315, 385

CLIMAP program, 423, 536, 542

Climate Analysis Center, 522

Climate forcing and forcing agents

aerosols, 94

anthropogenic, 13, 174, 602

of Arctic fluctuations, 260-261

atmospheric observations, 15-16

climate sensitivity to, 172, 176, 181-186, 192, 208

Milankovitch effect, 172

natural, 13, 15-16, 178-179

ocean response to, 182-184, 534

ozone, 59

Sahel drought, 45

stochastic, 337, 338, 360-362, 382, 398-406

tidal, 106, 524

white-noise, 171, 173, 178, 362

Climate monitoring

deep ocean, 324

with corals, 495-505

issues, 15, 235

recommendations, 511, 606

tropical ocean, 495-505

systems, 15

Climate-signal detection

carbon dioxide, 105

''fingerprint" technique, 18

from glaciers, 55-56

greenhouse, 18, 530-531

models for, 178-180

signal-processing approach, 175-181, 201

Tasmanian temperatures and, 530-531

Climate System Modeling Program, 396

Cloud cover

albedo, 93, 94

ceiling height, 90

global warming and, 93, 95

modeling, 430, 433

seasonal relationships, 92

sky cover, 90

snow cover and, 52, 54, 56

and temperature, 15-16, 90-92, 93, 95, 189

Cocos, Costa Rica, 503

Cod fisheries, 239, 306-309, 317

Colorado, temperatures, 20, 22

Columbia University, 423

Commonwealth of Independent States. See Soviet Union (former)

Comprehensive Aerological Reference Data Set (CARDS), 119

Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), 14, 119, 121-128, 131, 135, 141, 142, 147, 234-35, 242, 247, 248, 252, 308, 321, 322 , 326, 357, 466, 514



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