Index

A

Accelerated Schools Project, 235-237

Access, 117-118

college enrollment, 150

minority enrollment trends, 158, 226

preschool enrollment, 148

quality schools, 134

secondary school enrollment, 148-150

trends, 148

Accountability

assessment-based, 171, 188-189, 191-192

average test score assessment, 213-214, 221

of school administration, 133-134

in school-based management, 76, 100-101

of teachers, 131-133, 137

test design and analysis for, 176-178

unmeasured outcomes and, 176

value-added assessment, 202

Active learning, 235

Adaptability, 234-235

Advanced Placement tests, 16

Algebra, 16

Assessment of schools

classroom-specific, 24

criteria for performance indicators, 197-198

cross-school comparison, 18, 207-210

dependent/independent variables, 23-25

examples of school-based management, 79-93

gain indicator, 216-218

implementing performance-based system, 48-49

implications of flawed practice, 218-219

inadequacies in, 21-22

management factors, 106-108

measures for, 148

reform outcomes, 21

standards for, 7-8, 12

for systemic reform, 5, 24-25

techniques, 199

See also School performance;

Value-added assessment

Assessment of students

adjustment of test scores, 179-180

as basis for educational reform, 173-174



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--> Index A Accelerated Schools Project, 235-237 Access, 117-118 college enrollment, 150 minority enrollment trends, 158, 226 preschool enrollment, 148 quality schools, 134 secondary school enrollment, 148-150 trends, 148 Accountability assessment-based, 171, 188-189, 191-192 average test score assessment, 213-214, 221 of school administration, 133-134 in school-based management, 76, 100-101 of teachers, 131-133, 137 test design and analysis for, 176-178 unmeasured outcomes and, 176 value-added assessment, 202 Active learning, 235 Adaptability, 234-235 Advanced Placement tests, 16 Algebra, 16 Assessment of schools classroom-specific, 24 criteria for performance indicators, 197-198 cross-school comparison, 18, 207-210 dependent/independent variables, 23-25 examples of school-based management, 79-93 gain indicator, 216-218 implementing performance-based system, 48-49 implications of flawed practice, 218-219 inadequacies in, 21-22 management factors, 106-108 measures for, 148 reform outcomes, 21 standards for, 7-8, 12 for systemic reform, 5, 24-25 techniques, 199 See also School performance; Value-added assessment Assessment of students adjustment of test scores, 179-180 as basis for educational reform, 173-174

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--> conceptual and technical development, 172-174 for educator accountability, 171-172, 191-192 evaluation of system for, 190-191 improving test design for, 186-189 level indicators, 199 limitations, 103-104, 172, 178-180 negative effects on teaching, 184-186 role of achievement tests, 174-176 system design, 189-190 in systemic school reform, 5 test design and analysis, 176-178 thinking skills, 176 At-risk students accelerated schools for, 235-237 cost-benefit analysis, 229-233 definition and characteristics of, 225-226 patterns of poverty, 227 preschool interventions for, 231-232 resource allocation for, 228-229 significance of, 226 social outcomes, 227-228 trends, 227 B Board certification for teachers, 255 Britain access to education, 117-118 examination system, 128-129, 137 secondary school admissions, 134-135 spending on education, 121-122 student achievement in, 112-116 student body diversity, 116-117 teacher accountability, 137 teaching practice, 122-125 teaching profession, 118-121 C Class size international comparison, 121 resource efficiency and, 6-7 spending to decrease, 151 student performance and, 22, 38 Clinton administration, 9-14 College(s) admission standards for teachers, 119 admissions criteria, 129, 133 attainment trends, 1, 2-3 employment outcomes related to, 55-73 enrollment trends, 150 student loans, 9-11 Cost-benefit analysis, 6, 8, 41 dropout prevention, 229-231 interventions with at-risk populations, 232-233 preschool programs, 231-232 Creaming, 185-186, 219, 220 Criminal behavior, 154 prospects for at-risk students, 228 school trends, 158-160 Curriculum design depth of content, 16 in performance-based incentive systems, 49 in school-based management, 77 student capacity to learn, 15-16 D Dade County, Florida, 82-90 Dropout rate, 148-150, 153, 226 economic outcomes, 230-231 high school interventions, 229-231 preschool intervention, 231-232 Drugs in schools, 159-160 E Economic analysis as basis for reform effort, 29-30 of educational issues, 142-143 of human capital, 1-2 implications of at-risk student populations, 227-228 lack of, in reform effort, 8 measures for school assessment, 23 outcomes for high-school dropouts, 230-231 potential for crisis in school system, 35

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--> research support for systemic reform, 5-6, 8 school governance models, 75-76 See also Investment in education Educational attainment of at-risk students, 226, 227 benefits of, 31 earnings correlated with, 31, 32, 53 macroeconomic effects, 32-33 market trends vs., as employment factor, 62-73 of parents, and participation in educational system, 101 preschool education and, 231-232 prospects for at-risk students, 227-228 relative wage correlations, 55-62 of teachers, student performance and, 22-23 trends, 1, 2-3, 53-54, 73, 150 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), 3, 4, 6, 172-173 academic standards, 13-14, 20 reauthorization, 12-14, 18-19 state autonomy, 19 systemic school reform and, 5 Title I, 13-14, 173 Employment and income career decisions of teachers, 242-250 cohort patterns, 57-58 educational attainment and, 31, 32, 53, 73 employer hiring behaviors, 133 employment opportunities for teachers, 247, 248 income trends, 161, 162 labor market shifts, 54, 153-154 occupational shifts related to educational attainments, 66-72 prospects for at-risk students, 227-228 prospects for high-school dropouts, 230-231 quantification of human capital investment, 2 relative wages related to educational attainments, trends in, 55-62 student preparation for labor market, 153-154 trends, 53-54 working mothers, 160 ESEA. See Elementary and Secondary Education Act F France, 141 access to education, 117-118 examination system, 128-129 repeating a grade in, 138, 139 secondary school admissions, 134 spending on education, 121-122 student achievement, 112-116 student body diversity, 116-117 student specialization, 139, 140 teaching practice, 122-125 teaching profession, 118-121 G Gender issues, 58-59, 153 General Educational Development (GED) certificate, 150 Goal setting adaptability in, 234-235 choice of specialization, 139-140 goal achievement and, 30, 135-137 for performance-based incentives, 103-104, 105 qualities of efficient organizations, 234 for systemic reform, 5 Goals 2000, 6 academic standards, 12, 20 criticism of, 3-4 goals of, 3, 12 rationale, 18-19 resource allocation, 14 systemic school reform and, 5 underlying assumptions of, 46-47 Grading on curve, 12, 130 H Head Start, 148, 164, 166 Health care, school-based, 166 High school

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--> attainment trends, 1, 2-3 competitive admissions, 134 enrollment trends, 148-150 international comparison, 111, 141-142 interventions with at-risk students, 229-231 occupational education and training, 11-12 teacher compensation, 119 teacher training, 119, 121 I Improving America's Schools Act, 12-14 Information management data needs for value-added assessment, 204-205, 206-207, 210-211, 220-221 needs of efficient organizations, 234 for school-based management, 106 International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievements, findings of, 112-116 International comparisons access to quality education, 134 economic competition, 32-33 educational spending, 121-122 examination systems, 128-129 extent of student performance differences, 111, 112-116 external assessment, 133-134 possible causes of student performance differences, 116-125 redoublement/repeating a grade, 137-139 secondary school admissions, 134-135 significant features of European practice, 141-143 standard setting for external exams, 135-137 student assessment, 112 student engagement, 124-125 student performance, 35-36 student time on task, 122-124 teaching environment, 131-133 teaching profession, 118-121 See also Britain: France; Netherlands Investment in education benefits for individual, 31 community economic status and, 162-163 cost-benefit analysis, 6 distribution of spending, 121-122, 151 expenditures per pupil, 23, 33, 35, 121, 151, 162-163 international comparison, 121 an investment in human capital, 1-2 macroeconomic considerations, 32 policymaking environment, 4 preventive interventions with at-risk students, 229-233 scope of economic analysis, 31 significance of at-risk population, 226 social rationale, 31, 151-154 trends, 30, 33-40, 150-151 Investment in human capital vs. investment in tangible assets, 2 J Jones, Adele, 132 L Language issues, 158 Level indicators, 199, 218-219 M Minimum competency testing, 173 Monroe County, Florida, 90-92 Motivation to learn peer group norms, 130-131 standards of external exams and, 135-137 teacher qualities related to, 17 threat of repeating a grade, 138-139 N National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 255 National Education Goals. See Goals 2000 National Teacher's Examination (NTE), 245-246, 249

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--> Netherlands, 141-142 access to education, 117-118 examination system, 128-129, 137 repeating a grade in, 138-139 secondary school admissions, 134 spending on education, 121-122 student achievement, 112-116 student body diversity, 116-117 student specialization, 139-140 teaching practice, 122-125 teaching profession, 118-121 NTE. See National Teachers' Examination O Occupational education and training, 11-12 P Panel on the Economics of Education Reform (PEER), 4, 6, 8, 171 Parents and families of students characteristics of at-risk students, 226-227 community-family partnerships, 163-164 ethnic differences, 158 influence on child outcomes, 154-155, 157 participation in educational system, 99-102 school-based training programs for, 166 school-family partnerships, 164 single parent families, 161-162 trends related to school performance, 160-162 in value-added assessment model, 200-201 working mothers, 160 PEER. See Panel on the Economics of Education Reform Performance-based incentives, 7, 41-43 basic features, 42-43 with disadvantaged students, 46 distortion problems, 104 in efficient organizations, 234 evaluation of effectiveness, 44, 45 goal-setting, 103-104, 105 implementation, 44-45, 47-50 management structure for, 48-49 measurement problems, 103-104 merit pay systems, 252 performance standards for, 47, 103 potential problems of, 103-105 quality of assessment data for, 219 rationale, 41, 46, 105 research support for, 48 school-based management with, 93, 98, 103, 105-106 for teacher licensing, 252-253, 254-255, 256 Performance standards achievement related to difficulty of, 135-137 for assessment of schools, 7-8, 12 conceptual and technical development, 173 criteria for, as assessment indicators, 197-198 criterion-referenced/norm-referenced, 173 current conceptualization, 174 decentralized decision-making for, 126 equality in implementation, 20 in ESEA, 13-14, 20 federal guidelines, 20 in Goals 2000, 12, 20 high-quality examples, 20 incentives to lower, 131-132 performance-based incentives and, 47, 103 political environment, 135 prospects for, as assessment indicators, 188-189 school administrator behaviors, 133-134 signaling effects, 125-129 state and local autonomy, 7-8, 14-15, 19, 20 for systemic reform, 20 for teacher training, 253 for Title I students, 13-14, 173 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 92 Policymaking assessment-based, 173

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--> attracting skilled teachers, 250-256 based on flawed indicators, 218-219 Clinton administration, 9-14 economic considerations, 4 implementation through incentive, 7-8 political environment of standard setting, 135 value-added assessment, 204 Praxis I/II, 246 Preschool enrollment, 148, 155, 166 long-term benefits, 231-232 Primary school international comparison of student performance, 111, 116 teacher compensation, 120 Private-public partnerships community-family, 163-164 effectiveness, 165-166 objectives, 147 in performance-based incentive systems, 49 prospects, 166 rationale, 154-157 school-community, 164-165 school-family, 164 tradition, 147 trends, 147 Production function. See School performance Productivity educational factors in, 32-33 implications of at-risk student populations, 227-228 international comparison, 32 Property rights, 1 Q Quality of education access, 134 economic outcomes and, 32-33 R Race/ethnicity academic performance, 36-37, 150, 153 at-risk populations, 226-227 diversity of student body as performance factor, 116-117 dropout rate, 150, 153, 226 economic trends, 161 education majors, 247 English as second language, 158 income related to educational attainment, 58-59 labor market correlations, 54 minority enrollment trends, 158, 226 parenting styles, 158 peer group influences on academic performance, 130 Reform efforts assessment-based accountability as basis for, 173-174 assessment systems for, 171-172 of Clinton administration, 9-14 community-family partnerships for, 163-164 community involvement, rationale for, 154-157 economic analysis for, 8, 29-30 effects on educational outcomes, 21 experimental research for, 44 goal setting, 5 incentive-based, 7-8, 41-43 obstacles to, 18, 45-46 political context, 142 prospects, 49-50, 142 recent history, 3-4, 29 school-based management, 76-79 school-community partnerships for, 164-165 school-family partnerships for, 164 significance of European practice, 141-143 spending reform for, 50 spending trends, 151 See also Systemic school reform Repeating a grade, 137-139 Resource allocation and use adaptability, 234-235 for at-risk populations, 228-229 class size and, 6-7 current inefficiency, 30, 40-41 economic analysis of schools, 6

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--> educational spending trends, 150-151 for implementing school-based management, 78, 81 meaning of efficiency in, 41 measurement techniques, 23 motivation for efficiency, 39 non-instructional salary expenditures, 35, 121-122 qualities of efficient organizations, 233-235 recommendations for reform, 50 school performance and, 23-24 for special needs students, 4-5 state and local decision-making, 14, 15 for systemic reform, 5 use of teacher's time in school-based management, 102 S SATs performance trends, 150 scores of education majors, 244 School administration accountability, 133-134 adaptability, 234-235 autonomy, 8 cost of, 35 limitations of decentralized decision-making, 98-103 local political environment, 107 obstacles to assessment, 106-108 parental involvement, 99-102 participatory decision-making, 17, 44-45 performance-based contracts for teachers, 7 performance-based incentives for improving, 7 qualities of efficient organizations, 233-235 rationale for district-level governance, 75 student performance linkage, 107 See also School-based management School-based management accountability in, 100-101 authority structure, 77-78, 80-81 evaluation criteria, 93, 106-107 examples of implementation, 79-80 expertise of participants in, 99-100 information needs, 106 objectives, 79, 81 parental participation, 99-102 participants in decision-making, 99 performance-based incentives in, 93, 98, 103, 105-106 rationale for, 75-76, 98-103 research needs, 93, 97-98, 106-108 resources for implementation, 78, 81 socioeconomic setting, 100-102, 107 student outcomes, 80, 81-93, 98, 102, 103 teacher autonomy in, 99 teacher participation in, 99, 100 School choice at-risk students and, 237 effects of flawed assessment data, 218-219 as incentive for student performance, 7 student performance and, 134-135 School performance class size and, 6-7, 22 community inputs, trends in, 162-163 community outcomes affected by, 157 economic analysis, 142-143 family inputs, trends in, 160-162 incentives for, 7, 40 measurement, 7, 21-25 outcome-based incentives for, 41-43 public knowledge, 133-134 social trends related to, 157-160 student outcomes affected by, 155 teacher training and, 7 trends, 148-150, 157-158 See also Assessment of schools; Value-added assessment School-to-Work Act, 11-12 Single-parent families, 161-162, 227 Sociocultural factors commitment to education, 111-112 discouragement of student performance, 112

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--> public knowledge of school performance, 133-134 threat of repeating a grade, 138-139 Socioeconomic factors in analysis of standardized test performance, 177 at-risk populations, 226, 227 in child outcomes, 154-157 community trends, 162-163 minority student performance, 158 parent participation in educational system, 100-102 rationale for investing in education, 31 in school-based management outcomes, 100-102, 107 in student performance, 23-24, 36-37, 153-154, 226 students in poverty, 158, 227 Special needs students expenditures, 23 in performance-based incentive systems, 46, 49 resource allocation, 4-5 See also At-risk students Specialization, student, 139-140 Standardized testing achievement related to difficulty of, 135-137 adjustment of test scores, 179-180 aggregate/average scores, limitations of, 199, 213-218, 221 appropriate use of, for assessment, 189-193 assessment goals, 174-176 conceptual and technical development, 172-174 control of test-taking pool, 185-186, 219 corruptibility, 180, 198 curriculum-based, 126 degradation of instruction as result of, 184-186 design and analytical methods, 176-178 improving design and administration of, 186-189 inflation of scores, 181-184, 186-187 as instrument of accountability, 171-172 limitations, 178-180 as measure of school performance, 23-24, 199 prospects for external exams, 142 racial/ethnic differences, 36-37 signaling effects, 125-126 socioeconomic variables, 177 student performance related to system of, 125-129 in systemic discouragement of student performance, 112 for teacher licensing, 245-246 teaching to the test, 173-174, 181-184, 185, 219 validity, 188-189, 197-198 variation across tests, 178-179 State and local decision-making for implementing incentive-based system, 48-49 implementing value-added assessment, 220-221 rationale for centralized school governance, 75 regulatory relief, 14 resource use, 14 for setting performance standards, 7-8, 14-15, 19, 20 student performance outcomes and, 21 in systemic school reform, 13, 14-15, 18-19 Statewide Systemic Initiative, 19 Student aid, 9-11 Student performance academic standards for Title I students, 13-14 academic standards of Goals 2000, 12 access to education and, 117-118 achievement related to external standards, 135-137 capacity to learn, 15-16 causes of international disparities, 116-125 class size and, 22, 38-39 classroom engagement and, 124-125 college acceptance criteria, 129

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--> determinants of, 39-40, 44, 107, 154-157 examination system as factor in, 125-129 extent of international disparities, 111, 112-116 external factors, 23-24 graded on curve, 130 incentives for, 7, 40, 43 inter-school comparison, 18 international comparison, 35-36 limitations of assessment, 103-104, 112, 172 peer group norms, 130-131 quality of teaching and, 17 racial/ethnic differences, 36-37, 158 in school-based management systems, 80, 81-93, 98, 102 school choice and, 134-135 school management linkage, 107 school reform and, 21 school spending and, 35, 37, 38-40 sociocultural factors, 111-112 specialization as factor in, 140 spending trends targeted to, 151 student body diversity and, 116-117 systemic pressures for discouragement of, 112 teacher accountability, 131-133 teacher incentives based on, 41-43, 121 teacher training and, 22-23, 38-39 time on task and, 122-124 trends, 35, 150 value-added assessment model, 200-201 See also Assessment of students Student-teacher ratio. See Class size Systemic school reform assessment techniques for, 24-25 basic concepts, 4-5, 14-15 conditions for success, 19-20 implementation, 15, 19 policymaking environment, 6 program coordination for, 13 rationale, 5, 18-19 research base for, 5-6, 15-18 state and local autonomy, 14-15 T Teach for America, 242-243 Teacher compensation/incentives attracting skilled teachers, 250-256 career decisions of teachers, 242-250 competitiveness with other sectors, 34 employment duration and, 248-249 for fields with shortages, 254 flexibility in, 254 international comparison, 119-121 market demand for teachers, 247-248 master's degree in education and, 251-252 merit pay systems, 252 objectives, 241, 252 opportunities for research, 255 performance-based approaches, 7, 42-43, 48 for professional development, 255 salaries, 248, 253-255 student performance and, 121 teacher mobility and, 248 trends, 7, 33-34, 35, 151 Teacher-student ratios. See Class size Teacher training board certification, 255 enrollment trends, 243 international comparison, 119 licensing requirements, 242-243, 244-246 master's degrees, 22, 38, 251-252 minority enrollments, 247 performance-based licensing, 252-253, 254-255, 256 as predictor of teacher effectiveness, 242 quality of trainees, 247-248 student performance and, 22-23, 38 subject matter expertise, 119 for systemic school reform, 5, 17, 20 trends, 7 Teaching practice accountability of teachers, 131-133, 137 active learning, 235 employment trends, 247 international comparisons, 122-125 measures of quality, 242-243

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--> negative effects of test-based accountability, 184-186 participation in administration, 17 in performance-based incentive systems, 104 predictors of effectiveness, 242 in school-based management system, 99, 100, 102 student engagement, 124-125 student performance and, 17, 22, 241 student time on task, 122-124 support for, 20 for systemic school reform, 17-18 teacher autonomy, 99 teaching to the test, 173-174, 181-184, 185, 219 work loads, international comparison, 120-121 Teen pregnancy/parenting, 154, 158, 162 school-based programs for, 166 Title I program, 13-14, 173 V Value-added assessment, 7, 44, 172, 221-222 analytical method, 205-210 benchmark measures, 201 conditional mean format, 201-202 control variables, 210-211 current implementation, 220 data collection for, 204-205, 206-207, 210-211, 220-221 external school inputs, 203 heterogeneous slope models, 211-214 intrinsic performance indicators, 202-204, 206 predicted mean method, 201 public understanding of, 205 rationale, 172 reliability, 211 role of, 198 sample size, 204 school performance expectations and, 219-220 standard error, 211 statistical techniques, 199-205 total performance indicator, 201, 202 Type A indicator, 201 underlying assumptions, 209-210 vs. average test score assessment, 213-216 Violence in schools, 158-159