conceptual and technical development, 172-174

for educator accountability, 171-172, 191-192

evaluation of system for, 190-191

improving test design for, 186-189

level indicators, 199

limitations, 103-104, 172, 178-180

negative effects on teaching, 184-186

role of achievement tests, 174-176

system design, 189-190

in systemic school reform, 5

test design and analysis, 176-178

thinking skills, 176

At-risk students

accelerated schools for, 235-237

cost-benefit analysis, 229-233

definition and characteristics of, 225-226

patterns of poverty, 227

preschool interventions for, 231-232

resource allocation for, 228-229

significance of, 226

social outcomes, 227-228

trends, 227

B

Board certification for teachers, 255

Britain

access to education, 117-118

examination system, 128-129, 137

secondary school admissions, 134-135

spending on education, 121-122

student achievement in, 112-116

student body diversity, 116-117

teacher accountability, 137

teaching practice, 122-125

teaching profession, 118-121

C

Class size

international comparison, 121

resource efficiency and, 6-7

spending to decrease, 151

student performance and, 22, 38

Clinton administration, 9-14

College(s)

admission standards for teachers, 119

admissions criteria, 129, 133

attainment trends, 1, 2-3

employment outcomes related to, 55-73

enrollment trends, 150

student loans, 9-11

Cost-benefit analysis, 6, 8, 41

dropout prevention, 229-231

interventions with at-risk populations, 232-233

preschool programs, 231-232

Creaming, 185-186, 219, 220

Criminal behavior, 154

prospects for at-risk students, 228

school trends, 158-160

Curriculum design

depth of content, 16

in performance-based incentive systems, 49

in school-based management, 77

student capacity to learn, 15-16

D

Dade County, Florida, 82-90

Dropout rate, 148-150, 153, 226

economic outcomes, 230-231

high school interventions, 229-231

preschool intervention, 231-232

Drugs in schools, 159-160

E

Economic analysis

as basis for reform effort, 29-30

of educational issues, 142-143

of human capital, 1-2

implications of at-risk student populations, 227-228

lack of, in reform effort, 8

measures for school assessment, 23

outcomes for high-school dropouts, 230-231

potential for crisis in school system, 35



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