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Index A African-American culture, 34, 37 Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP), 70 Agriculture, 14, 16, 113 cultural versus industrial views of, 10, 16-18 size and structure of operations, 6, 34, 35, 94, 173-174 specialty farms and niche markets, 34, 173-174 see also Cooperatives; Crops and cropland; Pastures and rangeland; Ranching and livestock production Alfalfa, see Hay and alfalfa Application depths and rates, 50, 56, 58 60 Aquifers, 87, 88, 190 Arid and semiarid regions, 10, 14, 75, 77, 85, 126, 170, 174 federal settlement policies, 14, 15 reclamation movements, 20, 21, 28 see also Western states Arizona, 23, 33, 90, 113, 118 Arizona v. California, 91, 92 195 Arkansas, 48, 56, 61 Army Corps of Engineers, 46, 151, 153, 157 Asian culture and communities, 26, 34, 38 Automated and computerized systems, 62, 64, 66, 177 B Beneficial use, 14, 30, 90, 117, 190 Big Lost River, 72 Bonneville Power Administration, 157, 158 Border irrigation, 62 Broadview Water District, Central Valley, California, 100 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), 77, 79 Bureau of Reclamation, 4, 9, 15, 21, 31- 32, 46, 48, 72, 101, 116, 145, 152, 157, 174 shift to water management, 6, 17, 73- 74, 111-112, 125 subsidies, 69, 85 surface water supply, 55, 142

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196 C California, 26, 48, 52, 61, 62, 68, 108, 126, 139-150, 172 history of irrigation in, 21, 32, 33, 34 water conflicts and settlements, 37, 100, 118, 142-148, 150 Canal systems, 15, 98, 104 Capital expenditures, 64, 65, 66 for conservation measures, 101, 108, 109, 171 for new technologies, 65, 108, 109 Carbon dioxide (CO2), 75 Center pivot sprinkler irrigation, 62, 66, 190 Central Valley Project, California, 37, 72, 74, 113-114, 140, 142, 147 Central Valley Project Improvement Act, 74, 82n, 113, 144, 147, 148 Centrifugal pumps, 48, 85 Chinese immigrants, 34, 37 Clean Water Act (Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments), 16, 68, 71,74,96,97, 114, 178 Climate, see Arid and semiarid regions; Climate change; Humid and subhumid regions; Weather and precipitation patterns Climate change, 74-75, 170 Coastal Zone Management Act, 15-16, 74 Colorado, 21, 26, 32, 48, 61, 130, 132 Colorado River, 73 Columbia River basin, 120, 150, 152, 153151 Competition, see Conflict and competing uses; Markets and marketing Computers, see Automated and computerized systems Conflict and competing uses, 10, 27, 35- 39, 127, 140-141, 142-148, 153- 156, 165, 170 Conservancy districts, 23, 31, 37, 158 Conservation and conservation methods, 33, 67, 104, 134-136, 170 adverse impacts of, 25, 104 definitions and measures, 172 incentives and disincentives, 16, 62, INDEX 85, 99, 116-119, 136, 138, 158-159, 171-172 landscape irrigation, 146, 175- 176 Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), 70, 82n, 109, 133 Conservation Technical Assistance (CTA), 70 Consumptive use, 49-50, 56, 57-58, 61, 87, 172, 190-191 irrigation shares by state, 55, 61 by region, 53-54 Conveyance losses, 50, 53-54 Cooperation and coordination, 27, 35-39 in environmental programs, 178 among institutions, 40, 113, 177 Cooperatives, 174 Corn andmaize, 49, 64, 88, 94, 101, 130 Costs and prices of crops, 66-67, 84 of production inputs, 64, 85, 149 see also Water costs and prices Cotton, 49, 64, 94, 130 Crops and cropland, 56 acreage restrictions under commodity programs, 48, 50, 52, 109 evapotranspiration (ET), 49, 106-107 high-value, 62, 67-68, 94, 130, 170, 172-173, 191 on Indian lands, 77-78 shares under irrigation, 46, 47-49, 51, 52, 130, 131, 132, 139, 151, 160, 170 value of production, 46, 47 water application depth and rates, 50, 56, 58-60 yields, 49, 64, 65, 84-85 see also Corn; Cotton; Crop subsidies; Fruit orchards; Hay and alfalfa; Horticultural crops; Rice; Sorghum; Soybeans; Vegetables; Wheat Crop subsidies, 17, 84, 94, 127, 172 Cultural patterns and perspectives, 2-3, 5, 12, 13, 20-41, 21, 126-127 conflict and cooperation, 27, 35-39 diversity, 25-26, 27, 33-35, 37-38 heritage values, 27, 31-33 knowledge systems, 27, 39-40

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INDEX research on, 22-23, 26 understanding of, 24-26, 28-30 see also Public opinion and concerns D Dams and diversions, 15, 72, 76, 87, 95, 96, 101, 141, 151 Data collection and analysis market conditions, 173 soil water monitoring, 62, 64, 137 Dawes Allotment Act, 15, 78, 151 Debt burdens, 14 Department of Agriculture, 70, 173. See also Soil Conservation Service Desert Lands Act, 15, 151 Deserts, see Arid and semiarid regions Diesel, 66 Diversification of agriculture, 34, 35, 173 Diverted water, 106, 107, 191 Drainage, 72, 73, 150, 172 Drip irrigation, 62, 105, 141 Drought, 48, 76, 85, 101, 141, 144, 145- 146 Dryland farming, 46, 132-133, 135, 136 Duty of water (legal concept), 30 E Eastern states, 47, 52, 56, 170 Economic issues, 3, 5, 6, 15, 22, 64-68, 94-95, 127 for agriculture, 16-17, 172-173 and environmental constraints, 16, 86 and institutional constraints, 86 profitability, 84-86 see also Costs and prices; Labor requirements; Markets and marketing; Water costs and prices Educational programs, 7, 173 Efficiency, see Conservation and conservation methods; Irrigation is. . Decency Electric power, 66, 101. See also Hydroelectric power; Thermoelectric power 197 Endangered and declining species, 69, 114, 143-144, 155-156 Endangered Species Act, 16, 96, 114, 143, 155, 157 Energy use and costs, 64, 66, 85 Environmental demands and issues, 6, 10, 15, 22, 28, 68-75, 72, 95-97, 100, 125, 143-145, 153-156, 162-163, 170, 171, 177-178 future directions, 75, 177- 178 government programs, 68-69, 70-71, 82n, 175, 178 legislation and regulation, 15- 16, 68, 69, 70-71, 83-84, 95, 96-97, 114, 143 see also Climate change; Drainage; Habitat losses; Instream flows; Salinity; Soil quality; Water quality and pollution; Wetlands Environmental Protection Agency, 70-71, 74, 114 Ethnographic studies, 22-23 Evapotranspiration (ET), 49, 75, 106-107, 117, 191 Everglades, 162- 163 F Family farms, 99 Farms, see Agriculture; Crops and cropland Federal government, 109, 111-115, 177 budget deficits and funding constraints, 14 environmental programs, 68-69, 70-71, 82n, 175, 178 historic role in irrigation, 2-3, 9, 10, 14, 15-16, 21-22, 31-32, 36, 46-47, 78, 83, 98 policy shifts, 4, 15-16, 31, 174-175, 179 see also Army Corps of Engineers; Bureau of Indian Affairs; Bureau of Reclamation; Department of Agriculture; Environmental

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198 Protection Agency; U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State Cooperative Program, 71 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments, see Clean Water Act Fertilizers and nutrients, 74, 97, 134, 137, 176, 178 FIFRA (Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act), 70 Fish and fisheries, 56, 72, 73, 96, 120, 143-144, 153, 155-156, 157-158 Indian claims and rights, 32, 91, 120, 153, 156 Fish and Wildlife Service, 157 Flavr Savr tomato, 103 Flood Control Act, 78 Flood-prone areas, 14 Florida, 26, 48, 61, 62, 108, 126, 160-166 Food Security Act, 70 Forecasts, see Projections and forecasts Friant Dam, 72 Fruit orchards, 48, 68, 88, 141, 152, 160, 164 Functional relations, see Economic issues Furrow irrigation, 62, 141, 191 Future directions, see Projections and forecasts G Genetic engineering, 103, 177 Geographical information systems (GIS), 39, 137 Georgia, 61 Global marketing, 17, 94-95, 127, 172 173, 174 Global positioning systems (GPS), 39, 137 Global warming, see Climate change Golf courses, 25, 68, 76, 160, 176 Government, see Institutions and policies Grass, see Turfgrass Gravity irrigation, 62, 63, 66, 141 Great Plains, 24, 47, 73, 126, 128-139 ground water use, 48, 52 Greenhouse effect, see Climate change INDEX Ground water, 56, 61, 67, 87, 126 declines in supply, 110, 119, 132-133, 145-146, 170, 191 pumping costs, 66, 88, 124n, 134 withdrawals by region and state, 52, 53-55, 56 H Habitat losses, 25, 69, 72, 86, 96, 97, 104 Hall, William Hammond, 32, 37 Hay and alfalfa, 48, 49, 56, 67, 68, 88, 94, 152 Henry's Fork, Idaho, 119 Heritage values, 27, 31-33 High-value crops, 62, 67-68, 94, 130, 170, 172-173, 191 Hispanic culture and communities, 26, 33, 34, 36 community water rights (acequia), 29, 36, 39 History of irrigation, 8-10, 12, 14-16, 91, 94 cultural aspects, 22-23, 27-40 legislation and policy, 9, 14, 83-84 Hohokam canals, 32, 33, 34-35 Homestead Act, 15 Horizontal integration, 173 Horticultural crops, 67 Humid and subhumid regions, 10, 48, 61, 77, 85, 126, 170 Hydroelectric power, 57-58, 78, 153-154, 157 Idaho, 48, 56, 61, 72, 152, 155, 158 Immigrant communities, 34, 37 Indian lands and rights, 9, 14, 25-26, 32, 38, 77, 90, 112, 150-151, 170 claims and settlements, 7, 14, 32, 38, 89-91, 92-93, 115-116, 175 cropland, 77-78 cultural values, 22-23, 126 federal allotment and sale, 9 fisheries, 32, 91, 120, 153, 156

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INDEX historic irrigation projects, 9, 33, 34-35 modern irrigation projects, 32, 77-79 treaties with U.S., 14, 77, 78, 90 water marketing, 32, 91, 95, 115 Indian Self Determination and Education Assistance Act, 79 Industrial water use, 57-58, 67, 68. See also Hydroelectric power; Thermoelectric power Institutions and policies, 3-4, 5, 6, 19, 24, 30-31, 97-100, 109-120, 127, 137- 138, 170, 174-175 and environmental issues, 68-69, 175 role in cultural development, 34, 38 spatial scales in, 13, 17-18 for water conservation, 171-172 see also Agriculture; Cultural patterns and perspectives; Federal government; Indian lands and rights; Interinstitutional cooperation; Legislation and regulation; Local government; Quasi-governmental institutions; Regional commissions and agencies; State government; Subsidies; Water courts Instream flows, 14, 15, 72, 119, 191 returns from irrigation, 73, 86, 104, 107, 177-178 see also Hydroelectric power Integration of farm operations, 94, 173- 174 Interinstitutional cooperation, 40, 113, 177 International market, see Global market Irrigation districts, 23, 31, 37, 98, 116, 137-138, 146, 161, 191 Irrigation efficiency, 106- 107, 151 - 152, 191-192 J Jurisdictions, see Institutions and policies 199 K Kansas, 56, 130, 132, 136, 138 Klamath River, 154 Knowledge systems, 27, 39-40 L Labor requirements, 62, 65, 66, 127 Lands, see Crops and cropland; Indian lands and rights Landscape irrigation, 6, 68, 87, 96, 97, 171 conservation and management in, 146, 175-176 technological development, 176-177 see also Turfgrass; Xeriscaping Laser leveling, 62, 177 Law, see Legislation and regulation; names of individual laws; Water courts; Water rights and claims Lawns, see Turfgrass Leaching, 73, 97, 105, 172 Legislation and regulation environmental issues, 15-16, 68, 69, 70-71, 83-84, 95, 96-97, 114, 143 see also Treaties; and specific laws LEPA (low-energy precision application) systems, 66, 130 Livestock, see Pastures and rangeland; Ranching and livestock production Loan programs, 118, 138 Local government, 112, 172, 175 Louisiana, 48, 61 M Maricopa-Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage District (MSIDD), 113 Markets and marketing, 64, 174 of farm commodities, 127, 172-173 global, 17, 94-95, 127, 172-173, 174 policies regarding water, 17, 18, 170 specialty products, 34, 173-174

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200 water allocation systems, 67, 68, 99- 100, 146-147, 171, 172 Mead, Elwood, 32, 41n Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWD), 100, 142 Microirrigation, 4, 62, 66, 85, 105, 107- 108, 137, 177, 192 capital costs, 65 labor requirements, 65 Midwest region, 47, 62 Minority groups, see African-American culture; Asian culture and communities; Hispanic culture and communities; Indian lands and rights; Mormon settlements Mississippi, 61 Mississippi Valley, irrigation use, 52, 170 Missouri River, 91 Mobile systems, 66 Molecular biology, 102- 103 Montana, 48, 52, 152, 155 Monterey Agreement, 37, 100 Mormon settlements, 9, 21, 32, 34, 36 Municipalities, see Local government; Urban areas and urbanization Mutual ditch companies, 23, 31, 37, 98 N National Environmental Policy Act, 15, 114 National Marine Fisheries Service, 157 National Resource Inventories, 115 National Survey of Pesticides in Drinking Water Wells, 70 National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, 71 Natural gas, 66 Near Coastal Waters Strategy, 71 Nebraska, 56, 130, 132, 133, 138 history of irrigation in, 41n Natural Resource Districts (NRDs), 110-111 New Mexico, 26, 29, 130, 132 No injury legal concept, 29 North Dakota, history of irrigation in, 41n INDEX Northwest Power Planning Council, 158 Nutrients, see Fertilizers and nutrients o Ogallala aquifer, 48, 88, 99, 118, 128-130, 132, 133, 134-135, 138-139 Oklahoma, 56, 130, 132 Operating costs, 64, 66, 85, 149 Orchards, see Fruit orchards Oregon, 52, 118, 152, 155, 158 p Pacific Northwest, 48, 52, 126, 150-159 fishery protection, 56, 155-156 Pastures and rangeland, 48, 67, 88, 141 Pesticides, 70, 74, 97, 103, 134, 137, 176, 178 Physical characteristics, 126 Pick-Sloan program, 78 Pima Indians, 9, 34, 38 Plants and vegetation, 25, 177 breeding and genetic engineering, 101- 103, 177 see also Crops and cropland Policy, see Institutions and policies Pollution, see Water quality and pollution Population growth, 10, 16, 57-58, 94, 147, 161 Practicably irrigated acreage (PIA), 91 Precipitation, see Weather and precipitation patterns Prior appropriation doctrine, 14, 29-30, 83, 90, 115, 119, 190, 192 Profitability, 84-86 Projections and forecasts, 12-13, 18-19 of cultural values, 33 environmental issues and policies, 75, 177-178 farm operation structures, 173- 174 international competition impacts, 172- 173 irrigated land acreage, 170 of market-based allocation impacts, 68, 171

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INDEX policy directions, 5-7, 13, 169- 180 technology development, 107-109 Property rights, 26, 29-30 Public opinion and concerns about agriculture, 16-17 about environmental issues, 15, 95 Pumps and pumping, 48, 85, 101 costs, 64, 66, 85, 88, 124n, 134 Punjabi immigrants, 34, 37 Q Quasi-governmental institutions, 22-23, 31, 37 R Ranching and livestock production, 56, 141. See also Pastures and rangeland Reclaimed wastewater, 57-58, 146, 147, 164 golf course use, 25, 76-77, 147-148, 176 municipal uses, 176 use by region, 53-54 Reclamation Act, 46, 151 Reclamation ethic, 28-29 Reclamation Service, see Bureau of Reclamation Recreation, 16, 155 Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis (RASA) program, 71 Regional commissions and agencies, 112, 156-159, 172, 175 Regional Water Quality programs, 71 Research on cultural patterns, 22-23, 26 on irrigation technology, 64, 173, 177 Resource Conservation and Development Program, 70 Return flows, 73, 86, 104, 107, 177-178 192-193 Rice, 48, 56, 94, 141 Rio Grande region, 32, 33 201 Rivers and waterways, 14, 95, 114. See also Instream flows Rocky Mountain region, 31-32 Runoff, 69, 96, 97, 104, 134, 193 Rural areas and communities, 22, 25 Rural Clean Water Program, 70 S Sacramento River, 34, 37 Safe Drinking Water Act, 70-71, 114 Saline water, 57-58, 164 Salinity, 72-73, 105, 134, 145, 193 San Francisco Bay-San Joaquin Delta dispute, 37, 143-144, 150 San Joaquin Valley, 34, 72, 73, 114, 141, 144-145 Scheduling, 62, 64, 106-107, 137 Science, 101-103. See also Technologies for irrigation Sedimentation, 72, 178 Sensors, 62, 137, 177 Small Watershed Program, 70 Sodbuster program, 70 Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act, 115 Soil Conservation Service (SCS), 46, 73, 114-115 Soil probes, 62, 64 Soil quality, 72, 73, 150 erosion, 70, 97, 114-115, 133, 134, 136, 178 salinity, 72-73, 105, 145 Sorghum, 49,88,102, 130 South Carolina, history of irrigation in, 37 South Dakota, din, 130 Southeast region, 47, 52, 94, 126, 170 Southwest region, 31-32 Soybeans, 64, 88, 130 Spanish water law, 9, 36 Spatial scales, 12, 13, 17-18, 27 Specialty farms, 34, 173-174 Sporhase v. Nebraska, 115 Sprinkler irrigation, 62, 66, 85, 105, 106, 107, 130, 135-136, 137, 152, 177, 193

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202 acreage by state, 63 capital costs, 65 center pivot, 62, 66, 190 labor requirements, 65 State government, 112 and conservation policies, 172 environmental regulation, 69, 178 policy transition, 119-120, 174, 175, 179 and voluntary transfers, 172 water allocation, 4, 30, din, 119, 152- 153, 175 see also Water courts; and specific states Storage and delivery systems, 14-15, 16, 76, 87, 141, 171, 178 Streams, see Instream flows Subsidies on crops, 17, 84, 94, 127, 172 for water and reclamation projects, 69, 83-84, 85, 88, 113-114 Surface irrigation, 62, 64, 65, 104, 130, 177 Surface water sources, 56, 61, 76 withdrawals by region and state, 52, 53-55 Sustainable development, 13 Swampbuster program, 70 T Technologies for irrigation, 4, 50, 62-64, 137 capital costs, 65, 108, 109 costs of shifting among, 85 development and transfer, 15, 39, 64, 101, 104-109, 176-177 labor requirements, 62, 65, 66 on-farm systems, 104-106 storage and delivery systems, 101, 104 see also Conservation and conservation methods; Drip irrigation; Gravity irrigation; Microirrigation; Scheduling; Sprinkler irrigation; Surface . . . ~rr~gahon INDEX Texas, 56, 61, 68, 88, 99, 108, 130, 132, 133, 137, 138 history of irrigation in, 33 Thermoelectric power, 57-58, 61 Time scales, 12- 13, 27 Transpiration, 75, 106 Treaties, between Indians and U.S. government, 14, 77, 78, 90 Trickle systems, 66 Turfgrass, 6, 68, 74, 76-77, 87 water demand, 10, 76, 175-176 water use efficiency, 77, 108 U Umatilla Indian Reservation, 39, 159 U.S. agencies, see under Federal government U.S. Geological Survey, 71 United States v. Winters ~ 1908 Supreme Court decision), 14, 32, 38, 89-90 Urban areas and urbanization, 10, 14, 25, 67, 68, 95, 142, 148, 149, 155 farms located near, 148, 173-174 water rights purchases and transfers, 88-89, 100, 146-147 see also Landscape irrigation Utah, 26, 32, 34, 36, 52 Utopian communities, 21, 32, 36-37 V Vegetables, 49, 68, 88, 164 Vegetation, see Plants and vegetation Vertical integration, 94, 173 Voluntary transfers, 171 W Washington State, 52, 117, 119-120, 152, 155, 158 Wastewater, see Reclaimed wastewater Water Bank Program, 70 Waterbanks,37, 116 Water costs and prices, 16, 64, 65, 66-67, 68, 84-85, 88, 124n, 148, 170-172

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