problem-solving component in all M.S. programs and discourage course-work-only programs.

  • Establish recommendations for the knowledge base that students should master at each degree level in limnology.

The primary responsibility for carrying out the above recommendations rests with limnology-oriented faculty in universities because only they can develop the courses and degree programs described in this chapter. If reform were easy, however, many of the above recommendations already would have been enacted. Numerous barriers must be overcome to achieve the goals described, and it will be difficult for academic limnologists to overcome these barriers by themselves. University administrators, water resource managers in government and the private sector, and professional societies involving limnologists all have key roles to play. University administrators can help advance reform by supporting needed changes in university administrative structures for limnology programs and by allocating appropriate financial resources to these new structures. University alumni working as aquatic ecosystem scientists and managers can promote change by advising faculty and administrators of the essential and desirable training that students should receive for employment in their field and by developing internship opportunities for students. Professional societies involving limnologists (both researchers and managers) can organize symposia at their annual meetings or cosponsor a national conference to discuss limnological education. As individual societies, or preferably as a joint effort, they should develop initiatives to influence the direction of educational reform. Such initiatives would serve not only to guide the efforts of faculty at individual universities but also to provide encouragement and support for those efforts. In summary, to accomplish changes in the educational system limnologists in academic institutions, government, and the private sector, supported by their professional societies and by university administrators, will need to join forces.


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Horne, A. J., and C. R. Goldman. 1994. Limnology, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw Hill.

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